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____ first described bacterial cells in a 1684 manuscript by referring to them as "wee animalcules."

Antoni van Leewenhoek

______ developed the culturing technique to enrich for a certain population of microbial cells.

Martinus Beijerinck

____described the life cycle of an endospore-forming bacilli

Ferdinand Cohn

____first to reveal how certain bacteria can obtain energy from inorganic compounds.

Sergei Winogradsky

_____published the first known sketches of molds

Robert Hooke

What are 4 postulates of Robert Koch? What was his greatest accomplishment in the field of medicine?

1. The disease-causing organism must always be present in animals suffering from the disease but not in healthy animals.
2. The organism must be cultivated in a pure culture away from the body
3. The isolated organism must cause the disease when inoculated into healthy susceptible animals.
4. The organism must be isolated from the newly infected animals and cultured again in the laboratory, after which it should be seen to be the same as the original organism.
-->His discovery of the causative agent of tuberculosis.
-->He developed techniques (solid media) for obtaining pure cultures of microbes. Some are still in existence today.

____ is primarily responsible for the oxygenation of Earth.


How do nodule-forming bacteria help agriculture?

A number of major crop plants are legumes. Legumes live in close association with bacteria that form structures called nodules on their roots. In the root nodules, these bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) that the plants use as a nitrogen source for growth.

Microbial role of rumen in digestion?

Microorganisms convert cellulose to fatty acid

What is bioremediation?

Role of microbes in cleaning up pollutants to produce commercially valuable products by industrial microbiology and biotechnology

Name the first human protein genetically engineered in human?


Frederick Sanger received Nobel Prize for which of their work in _____

structure and sequencing of proteins, DNA sequencing

Kary Mullis received Nobel Prize for which of their work in _____


What are Pasteur's contributions? Which vaccines he developed?

-Discovered that living organisms discriminate between optical isomers
-Discovered that alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process (originally thought to be purely chemical)
-Disproved theory of spontaneous generation
-Led to the development of methods for controlling the growth of microorganisms (aseptic technique)
-Developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, and rabies

Largest mass of living material- plant, microorganisms or animals


Why is Mycobacterium tuberculosis difficult to stain?

Because of the large amounts of a waxy lipid present in its cell wall

Which part of the human body does not contain a significant normal microbial flora?


Which statement is generally NOT true?
A) Microbial cells exist as single cells.
B) Microbial cells carry out their life processes of growth independently.
C) Microbial cells include both bacteria and viruses.
D) Microbial cells exclude the cells of plants and animals.

Microbial cells include both bacteria and viruses

Basic microbiology can be used to

A) probe the fundamental processes of life.
B) study characteristics of cells of multicellular organisms.
C) model our understanding of cellular processes in multicellular organisms, including humans.

Applied microbiology deals with important practical problems in

medicine, agriculture, industry

The largest mass of living material on Earth comes from


Differential selection and reproduction of phenotypes occurs during a process called

cellular differentiation

In what/which domain(s) of life is/are microorganisms represented?

archaea, bacteria, eukarya

A specific molecule, used especially by evolutionary biologists, that is unique to a particular taxonomical group is called a


Protein catalysts involved in the acceleration of the rate of chemical reactions are called


Most prokaryotic cells reside

in the oceanic and terrestrial subsurfaces

person who described the "wee animalcules" was

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

Fannie Hesse is credited with giving ________ the idea to use agar as a solidifying agent

Robert Koch

characteristics of cellular organisms (3)

metabolism, regeneration and reproduction, communication

Which of the following is NOT a major ecosystem?
A) aquatic
B) terrestrial
C) atmospheric
D) other organisms, such as plants and animals


Which statement is TRUE?
A) Populations are assemblages of microbial communities.
B) Microbial communities are assemblages of populations.
C) Habitats are assemblages of microbial communities.
D) Populations are assemblages of habitats

B) Microbial communities are assemblages of populations.

Louis Pasteur developed the vaccines for

anthrax, fowl cholera, rabies

discovery of antibiotics and other important chemicals led to the field of

industrial micobiology

Microbial sterilization is used to

kill all microbes in or on objects

Transparent double-sided dishes used for growing microbes are most commonly called

petri dishes

Microbes playing a role in nitrogen fixation in plants live in ________, while those playing a role in the digestive tract of certain herbivores live in ________.


Which of the following is NOT an accomplishment of Louis Pasteur?
A) determined that the alcohol-making process was mediated by microbial fermentation and thus refuted the theory of spontaneous generation
B) developed enrichment culture techniques
C) developed heat sterilization techniques that involved the creation of a specialized swan-necked flask
D) developed the first rabies vaccine and treated thousands of individuals

B) developed enrichment culture techniques

The theory of spontaneous generation was refuted by the work of

louis pasteur

A Pasteur flask has a(n)

swan neck to prevent particulate matter from getting into the main body of the flask.

Robert Koch's greatest accomplishment in the field of medical bacteriology was with

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

A pure culture is a

population of identical cells

Martinus Beijerinck was the first to isolate

A) green algae.
B) certain nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacteria.
C) certain sulfate-reducing bacteria.

Chemolithotrophy involves

oxidation of inorganic compounds

Developments in the fields of immunology and medical microbiology were practical extensions of the work of

robert koch

Microbial control in wastewaters would most logically be a part of

aquatic microbiology

Robert Koch contributed to the field of microbiology by being the first person to

A) develop the tuberculin test.
B) formulate four postulates for definitively linking a specific microorganism to a specific disease.
C) use agar as a solidifying agent in growth media.

The science of grouping and classifying microorganisms is known as

microbial systematics

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very difficult to stain because of the

large amounts of a waxy lipid present in its cell wall

Louis Pasteur's most famous success was his work on

the rabies vaccine

Microorganisms play key roles in the cycling of important nutrients in plant nutrition, particularly those of

C, N, and S

Microbial ecology is the study of

microorganisms in their natural environments

The structure that confers structural strength on the cell is known as the

cell wall

Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

i.DNA enclosed in a membrane-bound nucleus
ii.Cells are generally larger and more complex
iii.Contain organelles
i.No membrane-enclosed organelles, no nucleus
ii.Generally smaller than eukaryotic cells

Disease-causing prokaryotes are found exclusively among the bacteria or archaea


Cyanobacteria are most closely related to the gram +tive or -Tive bacteria


Syphilis and Lyme disease are both caused by


Bacteria resistant to radiation =

Deinococcus radiodurans

Types of microscopy used in research

a. Light microscopy
i. Bright-field
ii. Phase-contrast
iii. Dark-field
iv. Fluorescence
b. Differential Interference Contrast (DIC) Microscopy
c. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
d. Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (CSLM)
e. Electron microscopy
i. Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM)
ii. Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM)

DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) is used for?

a. In Fluorescence Microscopy
i. Used to visualize specimens that fluoresce
1.Emit light of one color when illuminated with another color of light
ii. Cells fluoresce naturally (autofluorescence) or after they have been stained with a fluorescent dye like DAPI
iii. Widely used in microbial ecology for enumerating bacteria in natural samples

Which bacteria autofluorescence?

Cells that contain naturally fluorescent substances such as chlorophyll or other fluorescing components

What is the difference between autotrophy and hetrotrophy?

a. All cells require carbon as a major nutrient
b. Autotrophs
i. Use carbon dioxide as their carbon source
ii. Sometimes referred to as primary producers
c. Heterotrophs
i. Require one or more organic molecules for their carbon source
ii. Feed directly on autotrophs or live off products produced by autotrophs

Name bacteria which are chemolithotrophs and chemoorganotrphs

i. Obtain their energy from the oxidation of organic molecules
ii. Aerobes use oxygen to obtain energy
iii. Anaerobes obtain energy in the absence of oxygen
i. Obtain their energy from the oxidation of inorganic molecules
ii. Process found only in prokaryotes

Is volvox prokaryotes or eukaryotes


Are most Crenarchaea anaerobes, hyperthermophiles, or both?


Name the bacteria that lacks cell wall?

a. Mycoplasma = major genus of pathogenic bacteria
b. Some Archaea like thermoplasma and ferroplasma

Lichens exist as a mutualistic relationship between ___ and __/__

fungi and cyanobacteria/algae

Evolutionary relationship between two taxa is called?


What is endosymbiotic theory?

Idea that a chemoorganotrophic bacterium and a cyanobacterium were stably incorporated into another cell type to give rise, respectively, to the mitochondria and chloroplasts of modern-day eukaryotes

What bacterial structure is responsible for motility?


Extrachromosomal genetic elements are?


What is the difference between TEM and SEM?

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
i. Electromagnets function as lenses
ii. System operates in a vacuum
iii. High magnification and resolution (0.2 nm)
iv. Enables visualization of structures at the molecular level
v. Specimen must be very thin (20-60 nm) and be stained

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
i. Specimen is coated with a thin film of heavy metal (e.g., gold)
ii. An electron beam scans the object
iii. Scattered electrons are collected by a detector and an image is produced
iv. Even very large specimens can be observed
v. Magnification range of 15×-100,000×

presence of membrane-enclosed organelles is a characteristic of

eukaryotic cells

Prokaryotes are made up of which two groups?

Bacteria and Archaea

Protein-coding sequences of DNA are known as


The Gram stain differentiates bacterial cells into gram positive and gram negative based on differences in the

cell wall structure

Disease-causing prokaryotes are found exclusively among the


Organisms most likely to be found in extreme environments are (archaea, bacteria, fungi, viruses)


Cyanobacteria are most closely related to the

gram-positive Bacteria

Which of the following organisms lives within the host cell as a means of avoiding destruction by the host's immune response?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

At the present time, ________ phyla of the Archaea have been identified


Which statement is TRUE about the genus Natronobacterium?
A) They are halophilic and alkaliphilic.
B) They are halophilic and acidophilic.
C) They are alkaliphilic but not halophilic.
D) They are acidophilic but not halophilic.

A) They are halophilic and alkaliphilic.

both ___ and ___ are fungi

yeasts and molds

In a lichen, the ________ is the phototrophic component, and the ________ provides the phototroph with an anchor and with protection from the elements

alga or cyanobacterium


The eukaryotic fruiting body is generally associated with the

slime mold

Early branching Eukarya lack


In relation to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells are generally


Paired chromosomes are found in


Mechanisms for controlling gene expression are found in

all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic

Ribosomal RNA-based studies reveal that

all organisms are thought to have diverged from a common ancestral organism (LUCA) or community of organisms.

____ natural and ____ synthetic compounds can be broken down by one or more microorganisms



According to our present understanding, mitochondria and chloroplasts are ________ in origin.


The model organism for microbial physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology is

E. coli

3 groups that are gram-positive


RNA-based phylogenies have influenced which subdiscipline(s) of microbiology?

A) microbial classification
B) microbial ecology
C) clinical diagnostics

What type of energy-yielding metabolism is found ONLY in prokaryotes?


Which organism has unusual cell walls, can reassemble its chromosome after it has been damaged, and has an innate resistance to high levels of radiation?


How was it determined that mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotes are actually ancestors of specific lineages of Bacteria?

molecular sequencing

The ultimate limit of what we are able to see with a microscope is dictated by


The most common type of microscopy for laboratory courses in biology and microbiology is done with the ____ microscope


When the oil-immersion lens is used

light rays are collected to increase clarity

A tiny stylus positioned so close to a specimen that weak repulsive forces are established is used in

atomic force microscopy

The cytoplasmic membrane is the

permeability barrier of the cell

If the magnification of an ocular lens of a particular microscope is 10× and the magnification of the objective on the same microscope is 47×, the total magnification achieved is


Fluorescent microscopy is commonly used in

clinical diagnostic microbiology

What type of microscopy has found widespread use in microbial ecology because of its ability to resolve the different layered components of a biofilm?

confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM)

Why is the presence of a cell wall significant from a clinical standpoint?

Animal cells do not have cell walls, so antibiotics that target cell walls can destroy invading microorganisms.

E. coli motility structural component(s) are?

pili, flagellum, gliding motility

Bacterial structure involved in conjugation?


What is the difference between capsule and slime layers?

Capsules and Slime Layers
i. Polysaccharide layers
1.May be thick or thin, rigid or flexible
ii. Assist in attachment to surfaces
iii. Protect against phagocytosis
iv. Resist desiccation

Capsule = if the layer is organized in a tight matrix that excludes small particles, such as India ink
i. Typically adhere firmly to the cell wall, and some are even covalently linked to peptidoglycan

Slime layer = if the layer is more easily deformed, it will not exclude par-ticles and is more difficult to see
i. Are loosely attached and can be lost from the cell surface.

Which group of microorganisms contain LPS?

Gram negative bacteria

Function of lysozyme

destroys peptidoglycan by cleaving the B-1,2-glycosidic bonds between N-acteylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid in peptidoglycan, thereby weakening the wall

i. Found in animal secretions including tears, saliva, and other body fluids, and functions as a major line of defense against bacterial infection

Function of autolysis

Beginning at the FtsZ ring, small gaps in the wall are made by enzymes

i. Function like lysozyme to hydrolyze the B-1,4-glycosidic bonds that connect N-acetylglucosamine and N- acetylmuramic acid in the peptidoglycan backbone

What is the composition of peptidoglycan?

i. Rigid layer that provides strength to cell wall
ii. Polysaccharide composed of
1. N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid
2. Amino acids
3. Lysine or diaminopimelic acid (DAP)
4. Cross-linked differently in gram-negative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria

In peptidoglycan teichoic acids are covalently linked to?

membrane lipids

Translocases are responsible for?

-exports proteins
-inserts integral membrane proteins into the membrane

Staphylococcus can be isolated from the ____ of healthy individuals


What is/are the excess carbon and energy storage molecules in bacteria?

a. Glycogen granules
b. Poly-B-hydroxyalkanoate (PHA)
c. Granules of polyphosphate

An organism of the genus Staphylococcus is ________, while an organism of the genus Spirochaeta is ________.



Bacteria with appendages possess

tubular or stalk-like extensions of their cells

The terms "run" and "tumble" are generally associated with

movement of the cell

Morphology is a term that refers to the ________ of an organism


Nutrients and waste products pass into and out of a cell in ________ proportion to the cell's size.


The cytoplasmic membrane could best be described as

a highly selective permeability barrier

Sterols are virtually always present in? absent in?

present in eukaryotic membranes but absent in prokaryotic membranes

Bacteria have ____ linkages
Eukarya have ____ linkages
Archaea have _____ linkages

ester - bacteria
ester - eukarya
ether - archaea

Carrier-mediated transport is necessary when (3)

A) diffusion will not allow adequate amounts of a substance to enter the cell.
B) movement into the cell is against a concentration gradient.
C) the level of nutrients in nature is very low

The phosphotransferase system is a type of?

group translocation

The periplasm is a(n)

region between the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane of gram-negative Bacteria.

The gram-positive wall contains a _____ peptidoglycan layer but is ____ complex than the gram-negative wall



In gram-positive Bacteria, the cell wall may be up to ________ peptidoglycan


The polysaccharide pseudomurein is present in the walls of

some Archaea

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer is found ONLY in the cell wall of

gram-negative Bacteria

An endotoxin is

the toxic portion of the LPS

Hydrolytic enzymes function in the

initial degradation of nutrients

_____ flagella are all over the bacterial cells
_____ flagella are tufts on the "ends" of bacterial cells



Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) A flagellar protein subunit is flagellin.
B) In flagellar motion, the basal body acts as a motor.
C) Flagella rotate at a constant speed.
D) The hook is the wider region at the base of the flagellum.

C) Flagella rotate at a constant speed

Which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
A) Fimbriae are generally shorter and more numerous than flagella.
B) Fimbriae enable cells to stick to surfaces.
C) Pili serve as receptors and facilitate genetic exchange between prokaryotic cells.
D) All of the above are true.

all of the above

Glycogen granules function as

storage depots for carbon and energy

A major function of prokaryotic gas vesicles is to

confer buoyancy on cells by decreasing their density

The membrane of a gas vesicle is composed of


What is the biological function of endospores?

They enable organisms to endure extremes of temperature, drying, and nutrient depletion

The tetraether molecule within the membrane structure of the ________ yields a lipid ________.



Aquaporins are

water transport proteins

Translocases are specific for the transport of


The prokaryotic transport system that involves a substrate-binding protein, a membrane-integrated transporter, and an ATP-hydrolyzing protein is

the ABC system

Negatively charged molecules that are partially responsible for the negative charge of the gram-positive bacterial cell surface are

teichoic acids

Although the inner leaflet of the gram-negative outer membrane contains phospholipids, the outer leaflet of the outer membrane contains

lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

One of the many types of proteins found in the cytoplasmic membrane is involved in the chemotactic response and is called a


When does endospore formation commence?

when bacterial growth ceases due to limitation of an essential nutrient

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