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Terms in this set (76)
Innermost layer of tissue that lines the chamber of the heart
Muscle tissue of the heart. Forms thick middle layer between outer and inner endocardium layer
A serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart.
4 chambers of the heart
Valves of the heart
Supply oxygen rich blood to the myocardium.
Regulates organ and gland function during rest, slows HR, and dialates blood vessels, controls digestion.
Increase HR, constrict blood, increase BP, speed of conduction through AV node, and force of atrial and ventricular contractions.
Cc's blood ejected with each heartbeat (normal 70cc)
Liters of blood pumped by the ventricle per minute (normal 5 L)
Degree of stretch of the cardiac muscle fibers at the end of diastole (volume)
The resistance of ejection of blood from the ventricle (blood pressure)
Ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to an electrical impulse
The percent of end diastole volume ejected with each heartbeat ( normal 50%)
Stroke volume x heart rate equals what?
Risk for cardiovascular disease increases with ____.
Cholesterol panel includes what?
Triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids
The heart is surrounded by a fibroserous sac called what?
The right side of the heart receives what?
Venous blood from the body (via vena cava), and pumps it to the lungs where it is oxygenated
The left side of the heart receives what?
Blood via the pulmonary veins and is pumped to the body via the the aorta
The right and left coronary arteries are the first two branches off the ____
Each electrical impulse starts where?
SA node in the right atrium
Contraction of the myocardium is called what?
Systole. It is the ejection of blood from the ventricles
Relaxation of the myocardium is called what?
Diastole, allows for filling of the ventricles
Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in ____ minute.
What factors affect stroke volume?
Preload, contractility and after load
The volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole
The systemic resistance which the left ventricle must pump
Extra heart sounds are noted as what?
The first wave (P) begins with the firing of the SA node and represents ______ of the atria
What does the QRS complex represent?
Depolarization from the AV node throughout the ventricles
A patient with a tricuspid valve disorder will have impaired blood flow between the
Right atrium and right ventricle
A patient has severe blockage in his right coronary artery. Which cardiac structures are most likely to be affected by this blockage
The portion of the vascular system responsible for hemostasis is the
Endothelial layer of the arteries
When a person blood pressure rises, the homeostatic mechanism to compensate for an elevation involves stimulation of
Baroreceptors that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system causing vasodilation
A P wave on an ECG represents an impulse arising at the
SA node and depolarizing the atria
When collecting subjective data related to the cardiovascular which information should be obtained from the patient?
# of pillows used to sleep
The auscultatory area in the left midclavicular line at the level of the fifth ICS is the best location to hear sounds from which heart valve?
When assessing a patient, you note a pulse deficit of 23 beats. This finding may caused by
When assessing the cardiovascular system of a 79 year old patient, you might expect to find
Difficulty in isolating the apical pulse
Which nursing responsibilities are priorities when caring for a patient returning from a cardiac catherization
Monitor vital signs and ECG
Check catheter insertion site and distal pulses
The heart is divided vertically by the
Blood flow into the two major coronary arteries occurs primarily during
During ventricular contraction, there is an _____ _____ ____ which cardiac muscle does not respond to any stimuli
Absolute refractory period
The T wave represents _______ of the ventricles
Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart except for _____
Capillaries connect what?
Arterioles and venules
The superior vena cava returns blood to the heart from where?
Head,neck and arms
The inferior vena cava returns blood from where?
Lower part of the body
Elevated right atrial pressure can cause what?
Distended neck veins
A measure of the pressure exerted by blood against the walls of the arterial system
Arterial blood pressure
The peak pressure exerted against the arteries when the heart contracts
The residual pressure in the arterial system during ventricular relaxation (filling)
The difference between SBP and DBP
The first heart sound (S1) is associated with the closure of which two valves?
Tricuspid and mitral
Cardiac specific troponin is specific to what tissue?
A radio graphic picture of the chest can show cardiac contours, heart size, and anatomic changes in individual chambers. Can record extra fluid, heart enlargement, and pulmonary congestion
Chest x ray
Ultrasound waves to record the movement of the structures of the heart
Done with a left sided heart catherization and contrast medium is injected in the arteries
True or false?
Electrical impulse travels
SA node ->AV node ->bundle of his -> R&L bundle branches -> purkinje fibers.
What does stimulation of Baroreceptors and chemoreceptors do?
Initiate changes in HR and arterial pressure
Where are baroreceptors and chemoreceptors located?
In the aortic arch and carotid sinus
After you eat, all the blood goes to the GI system
Troponin is released when?
Cardiac muscles are damaged. Rises in 4-6 hrs, peaks 10-24 hrs, detected up to 10-14 days.
Creatine kinase is what?
Cardiac specific, rises in 3-6 hrs, peaks 12-24hrs, returns to baseline in 12-48 hrs. Slow rising!
Cardiac valve disorder, abnormal blood flow patterns. "Murmur" is the sound of blood flowing
The hearts upper chambers (atria) beat out of coordination with the lower chambers (ventricles)
A swelling and irritation of the thin saclike membrane surrounding the heart
A systolic sound heard over the carotid artery area during auscultation
Ends with "lol", decreases myocardial contraction, heart rate, stroke volume rate, and BP
Dialates arteries and vessels
Calcium channel blocker
Vasodilation with decreased stroke volume rate,
Coronary artery bypass graft
Cardiac output x systemic vascular resistance
Heart rate is regulated by what?
Autonomic nervous system
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