Place - European West, Byzantium, & Islamic World
Time - 500 to 1500 CE
West: Legal system, schools, & universities (intellectual, autonomy, rational, thought). Theology, lay, medicine, world of nature.
Byzantium: Greek was already spoken. Interest in humanities - literature, philosophy, history, and theology. Church didn't support Greek thought.
Islamic World: Translation of Greek writings to Arab, sciences to natural philosophies, debates regarding faith and reason.
Place - Mongol Empire
Time - 12th Century
Temujin became a chief with a growing band of followers. His rise to power took place among shifting alliances and betrayals, a mounting string of military victories, the indecisiveness of his enemies, a reputation as a generous leader, and new warriors from defeated tribes. A Mongol assembly recognized Temujin as Chinggis Khan, supreme ruler of an unified Great Mongol Nation. Constructed empire with China, Korea, Central Asia, Russia, Middle East, and Eastern Europe.
Place - Australia & Northwest North America
Time - 15th century
The hunter/gatherer people of Australia had been separated into about 250 groups. They borrowed ideas from outsiders (canoes, fishhooks, nets, ideas, etc.) but did not farm. Used "firestick farming" to clean up the country. Goods were exchanged. In North America, the people created a complex hunter/gatherer culture. They had permanent village settlements - large houses, economic specialization/ structure, ranked societies (slavery), chiefdoms, leaders, and food storage.
Place - Britain
Time - 19th century
Middle class benefited most from the Industrial Revolution. Upper levels - extremely wealthy factory & mine owners, bankers, and merchants. These rising businessmen were assimilated into life of the aristocracy. Smaller businessmen (doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, scientists, etc.) were liberals, favored democracy, free trade, private property, etc. Middle class men - vote! Values of self-improvement - enterprising spirit. Middle class women - domestic and family life.
Lower middle class comprised of 20% of the population.
Place - Global
Time - 1750 to 1914 CE
Employment in plantations, mines, construction projects, and homes were the jobs offered. Working conditions and salaries were not fair and disease and death were common outcomes. Many people migrated to European farms/plantations because they lost their land. Bantustans (reserves for natives) became overcrowded. Mines were a source of labor. Western-educated elites could become teachers, doctors, professional specialists, and clerks. Workers would work on railroads. Poor would become construction workers, drivers, food sellers, servants, and prostitutes. Family life was impossible.
Place - Colonies
Time - 1750 to 1914 CE
•For the minority, the acquisition of a Western education generated a new identity, providing access to better-paying jobs, and escape form the obligations of living under European control, such as forced labor.
•It brought them elite status within their own communities and an opportunity to achieve or approach equality with whites in racially defined societies.
•Education created a cultural divide within Asian and African societies between the small number who mastered to varying degrees the ways of their rulers and the vast majority who had not.
•In India, Western educated people organized a variety of reform societies, which sought a renewed Indian culture that was free of child marriages, caste, etc.
•However, there was disillusionment among those who received a Western education, as well. Europeans generally declined to treat Asian and African subjects as equal partners, regardless of their education.
Military defeat shook confidence in the old gods and local practices, fostering openness to new sources of supernatural power that could operate in the wider world now impinging on their societies. Furthermore, Christianity was widely associated with modern education, and especially in Africa, mission schools were the primary providers of Western education. The young, the poor, and many women—all oppressed—found new opportunities and greater freedom in some association with missions. The spread of the Christian message was due to the many thousands of African teachers, catechists, and pastors, rather than European missionaries, who brought the new faith to remote villages and communities that begged for a teacher and supplied the labor and materials to build a small church or school. Place - Africa
Before the colonial period, African peoples had long recognized differences among themselves based on language, kinship, clan, village, or state, but these were seldom clearly defined. The idea of an Africa sharply divided into separate and distinct "tribes" was in fact a European notion that facilitated colonial administration and reflected Europeans' belief in African primitiveness.
New ethnic identities were not simply imposed by Europeans; Africans found ethnic or tribal labels useful. This was especially true in rapidly growing urban areas where competition for jobs, housing, and education was very intense. Migrants to the city found it helpful to categorize themselves and others in larger ethnic terms. Thus, in many colonial cities, people who spoke similar languages, shared a common culture, or came from the same general part of the country began to think of themselves as a single people—a new tribe.
Place - Global
Time - 1914 to 1970s CE
More than World War I, World War II was a genuinely global conflict with independent origins in both Asia and Europe.
The Second World War was more destructive, with some 60 million deaths—six times the deaths in World War I.
More than half the casualties of World War II were civilians, reflecting a nearly complete blurring of the traditional line between civilian and military targets as compared to World War I.
In World War II, governments mobilized their economies, their people, and their propaganda machines even more extensively than in World War I.
The Holocaust of World War II was an act of genocide that outstripped even the Armenian genocide of World War I in scale.
World War II rearranged the architecture of world politics even more than had World War I.
After World War II, Europe was effectively divided, with its western half operating under an American umbrella and the eastern half subject to Soviet control.
In contrast to the aftermath of World War I, Europe's role in the world was greatly diminished in the decades that followed World War II, with European colonies in Asia and Africa achieving their independence.
World War II allowed for the consolidation and extension of the communist world in a way that World War I did not.
More effective worldwide organizations like the United Nations and the World Bank took shape after World War II, as compared to the League of Nations that was created after World War I.
• The United States took on a more dominant presence on the world stage after World War II as compared to the post-World War I era.
Place - China
Time - Pre-1949 CE
In 1911, the Chinese imperial system collapsed. Pressures from foreign imperialism, inadequacies, and internal opposition reeked havoc on the state. In 1921, a small Chinese Communist Party was founded with Marxist ideology. The CCP grew enormously and the leader, Mao Zedong, engaged in the struggle against the Japanese, fighting out foreign forces. The Chinese would be victorious and the country would be thrown into a Civil War where the more popular group, the Goumindang, would struggle for dominance in China. Although the Guomindang provided urban development, the CCP appealed towards peasant villages for support. Eventually, after abuses of the Guomindang forces, the CCP was able to gain prominence in China while dispelling foreign forces.
Place - South Africa
Time - 1914 to Present
In the opening decades of the twentieth century, the educated, professional, and middle-class Africans who led the political party known as the ANC sought not to overthrow the existing order but to be accepted as "civilized men" within that society. They appealed to the liberal, humane, and Christian values that white society claimed. For four decades, the leaders of the ANC pursued peaceful and moderate protest, but to little effect. During the 1950s, a new and younger generation of the ANC leadership broadened its base of support and launched nonviolent civil disobedience. In the 1960s, following the banning of the ANC, underground nationalist leaders turned to armed struggle, authorizing selected acts of sabotage and assassination, while preparing for guerrilla warfare in camps outside the country. The 1970s and 1980s saw an outbreak of protests in sprawling, segregated, and impoverished black neighborhoods as well as an increasingly active black labor movement. The South African freedom struggle also benefited from increasing international pressure on the apartheid government.