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Science
Physics
Chapter 1 - Describing Motion: Position and Motion, Speed and Velocity, Acceleration
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Terms in this set (24)
reference point
starting point you choose to describe the location, or position, of an object
position
object's distance and direction from a reference point;
location of an object
motion
process of changing position or
direction
displacement
difference between the initial (first) position and the final position of an object
relative
compared to
average speed
total distance (meters) divided by total time (seconds)
v = d/t
instantaneous speed
speed at a specific instant in time
constant speed
rate of change of position in which the same distance is traveled each second;
stays the same;
does not increase or decrease
speed
measure of the distance an object travels per unit of time
velocity
speed and direction of a moving object;
can be represented by an arrow
acceleration
measure of the change in velocity during a period of time;
a change in speed (+ or -) and direction;
change in velocity;
can also be represented by an arrow;
direction of the arrow depends on whether velocity increases or decreases;
if it is positive, it is in the same direction of motion;
if it is negative, it is in the opposite of motion
speed-time graph
shows how speed changes over time;
time is plotted on the horizontal axis (x);
speed is plotted on the vertical axis (y)
x-axis
horizontal axis;
on a speed-time graph, time is on this axis
y-axis
vertical axis;
on a speed-time graph, distance is on this axis
distance
the length of the path between two points
position
object's distance and direction from a reference point
Three things are needed:
1. reference point
2. reference direction
3. distance
meter per second squared
SI unit for speed
relative
compared to
dimension
measurement in one direction;
distance or length in one direction;
can measure in more than one dimension (2 directions = 2 dimensions; 3 directions = 3 dimensions)
reference direction
is in the positive direction;
the opposite direction is in the negative direction
decreasing or downward line
how decreasing speed is plotted on a speed-time graph
upward or increasing line
how increasing speed is plotted on a speed-time graph
horizontal line
how constant speed is plotted on a speed-time graph
horizontal line on the time or x-axis
how an object at rest is plotted on a speed-time graph
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