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Ch. 4 & 5

Tropic Hormones

Hormones that stimulate secretion from other hormones

Dysfunction of an endocrine gland signs and symptoms

Skin,hair, and nail changes, muscle weakness, changes in energy levels, hypertension or hypotension


Excessive production and secretion of pituitary hormones, chronic and progressive diseaes.

Occurs before puberty that cause gigantism, abnormal and accelerated growth, sexual and mental development are often retarded.


Pituitary magnetic imaging and computed tomography detects the presence of a pituitary lesion.

Hyperpituitarism diagnosis

Surgery and possibly radiation to the pituitary gland to reduce its size

Hyperpituitarism treatment


Chronic metabolic condition of adults caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone.

An overgrowth of the face, hands, and feet, occurs after puberty, often seen in people 30 to 40 yrs of age. Joint pain, gap teeth, must wear larger gloves and/or shoes.

Signs and symptoms of Acromegaly

Acromegaly diagnosis

Pituitary magnetic imaging and computed tomography detects the presence of a pituitary lesion.

Reverse or prevent tumor mass effects and reduce the amount of growth hormones secreted by surgery to the pituitary gland to reduce its size

Acromegaly treatment

Reducing levels of growth hormones is associated with an improvement in signs and symptoms

Acromegaly prognosis


A condition caused by a deficiency or absent of any of the pituitary hormones

Metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity, or growth retardation, salt balance and nutrient metabolism are affected, menstruation, and libido. Headache and blindness are signs of tumor.

Signs and symptoms of Hypopituitarism

Pituitary tumor or a tumor of the hypothalamus. Some causes are congenital deficiencies. Damage to the pituitary gland from radiation or surgical removal or from ischemia of the gland.

Causes of Hypopituitarism


Insufficient blood flow to an area

Complete medical evaluation, plasma levels tested, radiographic films, cranial CT, and MRI scans.

Hypopituitarism diagnosis

Surgery to remove tumors, hormone replacement therapy, and hormones continuously monitored

Hypopituitarism treatment


the term for overactive tissue within the thyroid gland that causes an overproduction of thyroid hormones (thyroxine or "T4" and/or triiodothyronine or "T3").

Grave's Disease

A condition of primary hyperthyroidism, occurs when the entire thyroid gland hypertrophies, resulting in a diffuse goiter and an overproduction of thyroid hormones


Enlargement or overgrowth of an organ

Rapid heartbeat and palpitations, nervousness, excitability, and insomnia, weight loss, profuse perspiration, and warm moist skin, muscular weakness, nail changes, general hyperactive behavior, tremors, and loss of hair, bug eyes and skin changes.

Signs and symptoms of Grave's Disease

this disease is uncertain and is believed to be an autoimmune response

Cause of Grave's Disease

A thyroid scan, blood tests, serum T3 and T4 levels

Grave's Disease diagnosis

Anti-thyroid drugs to reduce the formation and secretion of thyroid hormones, Beta-blockers, radioactive iodine therapy or surgery

Grave's Disease treatment

Therapeutic intervention almost always restores the balance of thyroid in the body and relieves the symptoms. Some cases with elderly are difficult to treat.

Grave's Disease prognosis


Any state in which thyroid hormone production is below normal, can strike either sex at any age, is a major cause of mental deficiency.

Fatigue, cold intolerance, constipation, and dry flaky skin

Signs and symptoms of Hypothyroidism

Cushing's Syndrome

A condition of chronic hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, which results in excessive circulating cortisol levels.

Fatigue, muscular weakness, and changes in body appearance, buffalo humps, protruding abdomen, salt and water retention, moon face, thin skin, bruise easily, develops stretch marks, excessive hair growth, amenorrhea, impotence, and possibly diabetes mellitus

Signs and symptoms of Cushing's Syndrome

Free cortisol levels are elevated in a 24 hr urine collection. CT or MRI may detect adrenal tumors. Moon face, buffalo hump and gross obesity are red flags.

Cushing's Syndrome diagnosis

Surgical removal or radiation, and drug therapy to suppress ACTH secretions

Cushing's Syndrome treatment

Progress is poor without treatment

Cushing's Syndrome prognosis

Addison's Disease

Is partial or complete failure of adrenocortical function. decreased production of two important chemicals (hormones) normally released by the adrenal cortex: cortisol and aldosterone.

Fatigue, weakness, anorexia, weight loss, and gastrointestinal issues. Bronze skin, cardiovascular difficulties, irregular pulse, reduced cardiac output, and orthostatic hypotention, depression, anxiety, emotional distress, inability to retain salt and water, high blood potassium level, and electrolyte imbalance

Signs and symptoms of Addison's Disease

Blood and urine cortisol levels are low. Serum potassium, blood urea nitrogen, hymphocyte, and cosinophil levels are elevated. Radiograph film

Addison's Disease diagnosis

Replacement of the natural hormones with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid drugs, and correction of salt and potassium levels. Hormone replacement therapy for life.

Addison's Disease treatment

Diabetes Mellitus

Chronic disorder, a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body.

frequent urination, lethargy, excessive thirst, and hunger.

Signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

changes in diet, oral medications, and in some cases, daily injections of insulin.

Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 and Type 2

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

IDDM, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Usually occurs before the age of 30 yrs and can be difficult to control.(Fruity odor to the breath)

Type 1

NIDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. adults older than 30 yrs and more often in people over 55 yrs. May need an oral hypoglycemic medication

Type 2

Gestational Diabetes

A condition that occurs during pregnancy.

Polyuria (excessive urinating), polydipsia (excessive thirst), and polyphagia (excessive eating)

Signs and symptoms of Gestational Diabetes

Routine prenatal urine glucose test. A fasting blood glucose determination indicates elevated levels of glucose

Gestational Diabetes diagnosis

Diet, limit intake of simple sugars, moderate exercise, oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin injections

Gestational Diabetes treatment


An abnormally low glucose level in the blood

Sweating, nervousness, weakness, hunger, dizziness, trembling, headache, and palpitations, confusion, vision problems

Signs and symptoms of Hypoglycemia

Glucometer and glucose tolerance test

Hypoglycemia diagnosis

Intravenous infusion of glucose, hormone glucagon

Hypoglycemia treatment


(farsightedness) is the condition of the eye where incoming rays of light reach the retina before they converge into a focused image.


see objects more clearly when they are close to the eye, while distant objects appear blurred or fuzzy. (nearsightedness)


Involuntary, repetitive, rhythmic movements of one or both eyes


A condition in which the eyes do not point in the same direction. Main symptom is diplopia ( the perception of two images of a single object.)


an inflammation or redness of the lining of the white part of the eye and the underside of the eyelid (conjunctiva) that can be caused by infection, allergic reaction, or physical agents like infrared or ultraviolet light.


When the natural lens of the eye becomes opacified ( Not reflecting light)


Damage to the optic nerve, often caused by elevated intraocular pressure. Major cause of blindness, occuring in the elderly of 60 yrs or older.

Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma

Sees "halos" around lights, group of eye diseases characterized by abnormally high intraocular fluid pressure, damaged optic disk, hardening of the eyeball, and partial to complete loss of vision.

Macular Degeneration

A progressive deterioration of the macula of the retina. Most common cause of blindness in the United States

Common symptoms of ear diseases and conditions

1. Hearing loss
2. Ear pain and pressure
3. Tinnitus (ringing in the ear)
4. Vertigo (dizziness)
5. Nausa and vomiting

Impacted Cerumen

Occurs when earwax becomes wedged in (impacted) and blocks the ear canal.

Otitis Media

Inflammation of the middle ear; earache, ear pain, children.

Meniere's Disease

a disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo and tinnitus and progressive hearing loss, usually in one ear. The condition affects people differently; it can range in intensity from being a mild annoyance to a chronic, lifelong disability.

Ruptured Tympanic Membrane (ruptured eardrum)

Any type of injury or tear to the eardrum causes a breach in the integrity of the membrane like pressure, force, or insult from the exterior aspect, or from the increased pressure within the middle ear.

Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Deafness, occupational hearing loss; sound waves reach the inner ear but are not perceived because the nerve impulses are not transmitted to the brain.

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