Chemistry Terms

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chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
precipitate
A solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction.
physical change
Changing an elements state, and color without changing it's substance.
ionic bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Matter
the "stuff" that everything is made of
Mass
the amount of matter in an object
Volume
the amount of space an object takes up
Atom
Smallest particle of an element
Proton
A positively charged particle
Neutron
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
Electron Shell
energy level outside nucleus where the electrons are
Valence Electron
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Pure Substance
Made up of only one type of particle, element
Synthetic Substance
A substance made of chemical reactions
Nucleus
Center of an atom, like a brain
Charge
a store of electric energy
Ion
when an element loses or gains an electron
Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties
Atomic Mass
the mass of the elements atom
Periodic Table
an organized table of the elements in order
Period
columns of the periodic table
Group
horizontal rows of the periodic table
Physical Property
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
Metal
Elements that are good conductors of electricity and heat
Nonmetal
an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
Metaloid
(semiconductors) elements that have the properties of both metals and nonmetals
Chemical Property
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance
Reactivity
the ability of a substance to go through a chemical change
Conductor
A material that allows heat and electricity to pass through it
Insulator
A material that does not conduct heat well
Semiconductor
A substance that can conduct electricity under some conditions
Malleable
easily shaped or hammered
Ductile
ability to be stretched into wires
Magnetic
ability to attract or be attracted
Molecule
A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements
Chemical Formula
A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance
Subscript
A number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in a compound
Crystal
A solid where atoms form a periodic arrangement
Mixture
A substance made up of two or moredifferent substances that are not combined chemically
heterogeneous mixture
A mixture in which different materials can be distinguished easily
homogeneous mixture
A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solvent
A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
solute
In a solution, the substance that dissolves in the solvent
sifting filtration
how you separate a mixture
evaporation
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
density
A measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume. D=M/V
boiling point
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
melting point
The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
solubility
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
chemical change
Changing the elements substance
chemical bond
an interaction that holds atoms or ions together