995 terms

APUSH Final/Exam 2012

All of US history--in flashcard form. I took out the easy terms such as "Iwo Jima" and "Bataan Death March" and "Rosie the Riveter" cuz I figured if you are in AP you should know those ad nauseam by now. And if you don't...I fear for your exam score. Plus there are friggin 1000 terms on this thing and it saves me some time. Feel free to add in anything I missed with the password "headache". Oh yeah, and there are typos and repeats. Sorry...
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Indentured Servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
Trade and Navigation Acts
These acts severely limited American trade to all countries except for England. The establishment of this act created many smugglers and the Dominion of New England, in part, to enforce the hated act. The act was seen by Americans as unnecessary and easy to get around.
Mayflower Compact
This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.
Roger Williams
A dissenter who clashed with the Massachusetts Puritans over separation of church and state and was banished in 1636, after which he founded the colony of Rhode Island to the south
Great Puritan Migration
Many Puritans migrated from England to North America during the 1620s to the 1640s due to belief that the Church of England was beyond reform. Ended in 1642 when King Charles I effectively shut off emigration to the colonies with the start of the English Civil War.
New England Confederation
New England colonists formed the New England Confederation in 1643 as a defense against local Native American tribes and encroaching Dutch. The colonists formed the alliance without the English crown's authorization. One of the colonies' first experiments with self-rule.
Freedom of Consciences
is the freedom to have opinions on a fact, and have viewpoints or thoughts that are different than another person's.
Jonathan Edwards
The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners. A Congregationalist preacher of the Great Awakening who spoke of the fiery depths of hell in his "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" sermon.
Halfway Covenant
A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Salem Witch Trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake. Led in part to the adoption of Enlightenment ideas.
City on a Hill
John Winthrop wanted Massachusetts Bay Colony to be a Puritan model society based on Christian principles. Puritans tried to live perfect lives. Said that the whole world would be watching them, and that they were a "City on a Hill", a model for everyone else.
William Penn
Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.
Proprietary, Charter, and Royal Colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
Peter Zenger Trial
Peter Zenger was a NY publisher defended by Andrew Hamilton. It was ruled that criticisms of the government are not libelous or slanderous if factually true. Removed some restrictions on freedom of the press.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip, or Metacom. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
George Whitefield
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.
Great Awakening
The series of religious awakenings in the 1760s that brought about the revivalist and New Lights groups. It undermined legally established churches and ministers and went away from government sanctioned churches, challenging all minister's authority. Brought about challenges to the authority of the higher classes and the formation of some colleges.
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679), wrote "Leviathan".
Mercantilism
A set of economic principles based on policies which stress government regulation of economic activities to benefit the home country, often at the cost of the colonies.
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness. Was evidence of the growing tensions between the rich and the poor.
Harvard College
the first American college, established in 1636 by Puritan theologians who wanted to create a training center for ministers. The school was named for John Harvard, a Charleston minister, who had left it his library and half his estate
Middle Passage
the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route
Phyllis Wheatly
captured african american and sold as slave. family took her in as a family member and she became literate. first published african american poet
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
Pilgrims/Separatists
Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands. Unlike the Puritans, they wanted to break with the English Church completely and came to America to do so.
House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Part of the Seven Year's War in Europe. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Iroquois Confederacy
a powerful group of Native Americans in the eastern part of the United States made up of five nations: the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondoga, and Oneida
Headright System
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Salutary Neglect
Throughout the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the English government did not enforce those trade laws that most harmed the colonial economy. The purpose of salutary neglect was to ensure the loyalty of the colonists in the face of the French territorial and commercial threat in North America. The English ceased practicing salutary neglect following British victory in the French and Indian War. Let to America feeling more independent and contributed to their outrage when faced with paying off England's war debts.
Albany Plan
Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.
James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony.
Chumash Indians
California coastal peoples who used acorns and fished. They drew cave paintings as well.
Anasazi Indians
Lived in the four corners region of the US. They had walled cities of adobe dwellings that were easily defended. They depended on trade, rather than farming, to survive.
Hohokan Indians
Developed irrigation, towns, ball courts, entertainment and technology as early as 300 BC. Lived in the Southwest area of the US.
Navajo, Apache, and Pueblo Indians
Could weave wool, did not use farming, and were nomadic people who hunted
Kwakiutl Indians
Pacific Northwest people who lived on the water, used totem poles, and hosted potlatches. had a society based on specialization, suggesting dependence.
Sioux, Crow, and Blackfoot Indians
Hunters, nomadic, fight over water resources in the plains area of the US
Moundbuilders (aka Hopewell Indians)
Lived in Ohio area, made pyramids from dirt, and utilized math and science to build said pyramids.
Algonquin, Pequot, and Shawnee Indians
lived in the eastern woodlands, where food was readily available. Had farming, canoes, and many semi- or permanent locations
Cherokee and Seminole Indians
Lived in the Southeast area of the US, primarily utilized farming
Jamestown
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
Captain John Smith
Organized Jamestown and imposed a harsh law "He who will not work shall not eat".
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government. SEPARATE FROM PLYMOUTH COLONY. This colony was made up of people who desired the creation of a city on a hill, which would be role models for the rest of the world.
Pueblo Revolt
This event, which occurred on August 10, 1680, in modern-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the most successful uprising against Spanish authority in the New World. The Native Americans took over the governor's residence as their own and remained there to protect their land. Spain was unable to reclaim its New Mexico colony for nearly 50 years.
Gentility
Colonial high-class merchants attempted to be like the English nobles and acted like proper gentlemen and ladies.
Land Bank
An institution, established by a colonial legislature, that printed paper money and lent it to farmers, taking a liens on their land to ensure repayment.
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacifism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Dominion of New England
1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros
Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life. It's the whole God "wound the clock" and "let it go" theory.
Piesm
Everyone has a different personal role with God
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
Old Lights
Orthodox clergymen who were deeply skeptical of the emotionalism and the antics of the Great Awakening.
General Pitt
(French and Indian War) lead the British offense against France in the colonies. He was one of the few that treated the colonies as allies instead of possessions
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain, Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Pontiac's Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed. Smallpox blankets.
Revenue Act
Britain can now seize vessels and search for outlawers, needed the money because of wars
John Wilkes
English reformer who published attacks on George III and supported the rights of the American colonists (1727-1797). he wanted everybody who owned land to be able to vote, and was angered by the unequal political rights.
George Grenville
British Prime Minister Architect of the Sugar Act; his method of taxation and crackdown on colonial smuggling were widely disliked by Americans. He passed the Stamp Act arguing that colonists received virtual representation in Parliament
Stamp Act
an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents. Was a direct tax.
Sugar Act
halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court
Currency Act
1764 Stopped colonial printing of paper money & forced colonists to pay in gold and silver
Ben Franklin
highly respected scientist, one of the wealthiest men in Pennsylvania. helped found UPENN, served as agent in london, and Pennsylvania, became convinced the colonies needed to revolt. served as ambassador to france during the war, helped write the declaration of independence, constitution, and helped negotiate the peace treaty ending the revolution
Virtual Representation
The British argument that the American colonies were represented in Parliament, since the members of Parliament represented all Englishmen in the empire.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Sam Adams
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Declaration of Rights
a document written by the First Continental Congress that stated the main concerns and wishes of the colonies
Declatory Act of 1766
This act repealed the Stamp Act while simultaneously allowing Britain and Parliament to make laws and bind the colonies along with the people in America in all cases (with date).
Charles Townshend
He persuaded Parliament in 1767 to pass the Townshend Acts. He seized a dubious distinction between internal and external taxes and made this tax an indirect customs duty payable at American ports. But colonials didn't want taxes.
Townshend Acts
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Crispus Attucks
Killed in Boston Massacre, black laborer, only African-American person killed in Boston Massacre
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Shay's Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
James Madison
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Great Compromise
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself. Was a part of the Second Continental Congress and pressed independence. Also defended the british soldiers in the Boston Massacre Trial.
George Washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command. After leading the Army to victory in the Revolutionary War, he became president under the new Constitution, having to deal with the French Revolutionaries, various rebellions, his bickering two Cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, and the pressures of governing a new country in a new way.
Henry Knox
Secretary of War under Washington, he was a trusted general of the American Revolution.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt. Also contributed to the Federalist Papers.
Thomas Jefferson
A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation's third president from 1801 to 1809, Jefferson organized the national government by Thomas Jefferson Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality. Organized Lewis and Clark expeditions.
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
XYZ Affair
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Citizen Genet
Edmond Charles Genêt. A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Genêt after Genêt began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports with permission from Thomas Jefferson, but not from Washington or Congress. However, Washington later relented and allowed Genêt U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Genêt.
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Western Migration
Due to the numbers of people migrating west, there were several effects on the U.S.
1) The Oregon Treaty: President Polk signed the Oregon Treaty with England that gave them all the land below the 49th parallel (the line separating the U.S. from Canada today)
2) Communication Links: Communication needed to be developed across the nation. The first quick mail service was called the Pony Express, and was soon followed by the invention of the telegraph, which sent messages much faster.
Little Turtle
Chief of the Miami who led a Native American alliance that raided U.S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. He was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Later, he became an advocate for peace. Fought in the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
Anthony Wayne
A General, nicknamed "Mad Anthony". Beat Northwest Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794.
Treaty of Grenville
Acknowledged Indian ownership of land, but ceded Ohio to the United States in return for some concessions.
Jay's Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It evicted troops from Northwest posts and allowed for trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks and on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
Pinckney's Treaty
The treaty between America and Spain in 1795 which granted America practically all they demanded, including navigation of the Mississippian the territory north of Florida. Was a direct result of Jay's Treaty due to France's fear of an Anglo-American alliance.
Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton's Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers. Initiated Trail of Tears and kept North and South together for a time.
John C Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class. Also an advocate for nullification and broader state's rights.
William H Crawford
He was nominated by the Republican caucus of Georgia in the 1824 election but lost due to other nominations from around the country.
Tariff of Abominations
The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
Daniel Webster
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union. Supported Compromise of 1850
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
War Hawk
A member of Congress who wanted war with Britain before the War of 1812
John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Intolerable Acts
The laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 that closed Boston Harbor, dissolved the Massachusetts assembly, allowed criminals to be tried overseas, and forced Boston colonists to house British soldiers.
Gibbons v. Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
McCulloch v. Maryland
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In deciding this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
Schenk v. United States
Supreme Court case which said freedom of speech could be revoked if it posed "a clear and present danger" to the nation
Marshall v. Otis
...
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
Loyal Nine
The Loyal Nine was a group of Boston merchants and artisans that formed during the Stamp Act crisis to lead the public in attempts to drive the stamp distributors from the city. This was one of the first steps toward political organization in the colonies.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
James Monroe
He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars. Era of Good Feelings.
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Republican Motherhood
it elevated women as keepers of the national conscience because they were entrusted with the moral education of the young
Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Proclamation of 1763
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Carolina Colonies
Had a constitution called the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina made with the help of John Locke in 1669. The northern and southern parts developed differently. The north did not import many slaves and had no aristocracy. The south was more prosperous and had an aristocratic society.
Stono Rebellion
The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.
Freeholders
Property owners who were allowed to vote in town meetings
Crisis Papers
A series of works by Thomas Paine written between 1776 and 1783 during the American Revolution. These papers were written in a language common people could understand it increase American morale.
Non-importation agreements
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
Second Continental Congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Gaspee Affair
angry residents of Rhode Island boarded this British ship, set it afire, and sank it in the Narragansett Bay. The angry British, instead of putting the accused attackers on trial in colonial courts, sent a special commission to America with power to send the defendants back to England for trial.
Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Paxton Boys
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Corrupt Bargain
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Embargo Act of 1807
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Tecumseh
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
Virginia-Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion
Out of black revival meetings in Virginia arose an elaborate plan in 1800 (devised by Gabriel Prosser, the brother of a black preacher) for a slave rebellion and attack on Richmond. The plan was discovered and the rebellion forestalled by whites, but revivalism continued to stir racial unrest in the South. 3: 1775-1825
Critical Period
Term used by historians to describe the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
Lowell System (Waltham Plan)
Think Lowell mill girls and their working conditions.
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
Orders in Council
closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping, unless the vessels 1st stopped at a British port, contributed to the war of 1812
Eli Whitney
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
Missouri Compromise
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
Three-Fifth's Compromise
Settled the question of how slave populations would be represented in Congress. Said that each slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person. All fugitive slaves must be returned to their owners.
American System
an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Henry Clay
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points. Died before it was passed however.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Full Funding
The term refers to Alexander Hamilton's plan to refinance the national debt at par; that is, exchange new government securities for old government securities at their face value despite the fact that many persons holding these securities had purchased them from their original holder for a fraction of their face value.
Judicial Review
review by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Barbary Pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
Samuel Slater
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine.
Treaty of Alliance 1778
Made during the American Revolution and created a defensive alliance between France and the U.S.
Benjamin Banneker
African-American scientist who taught himself calculus and trigonometry. He also helped design the capitol in Washington D.C.
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Haitian Rebellion
the only large scale revolt to succeed in the New World, inspired in large part by the American Revolution and caused directly by events related to the French Revolution, inspired revolution elsewhere in Latin America
National Republicans
supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
Oneida Community
It was founded by John Humphrey Noyes. It was a group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. They practiced polygamy, communal property and communal raising of children. (Utopian society).
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
John Marshall
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
Benjamin Rush
pioneering physician from Philadelphia; warned about the need for proper sanitation; advocate of new scientific treatment of bleeding and purging
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
Martin Van Buren
He was the eighth president of the United States who was experienced in legislative and administrative life. He passed the Divorce Bill which placed the federal surplus in vaults located in large cities and denied the backing system.
Benevolent Empire
Campaign of moral and institutional reforms inspired by Christian ideals and endorsed my upper middle class in the 1820s. Ministers insisted people who experienced saving grace should provide moral guidance and charity to the less fortunate.
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
Transcendentalism
a nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
Valley Forge
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutrition, von Steuben comes and trains troops
Yorktown
the last major engagement/battle of the war. Washington's armies along with the French naval fleet under de Grasse surrounded British general Charles Cornwallis and received his surrender It ended major engagements in the colonies, thus putting an "end" to the war.
David Walker
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
Brook Farm
A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.
Gag Rule
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Complex Marriage
every man married to every woman
Commonwealth v. Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
Log Cabin Campaign
It was a Whig party presidential campaign of William Henry Harrison in 1840. It portrayed Harrison as a simple man sprung from the people when in reality he was rich. It won Harrison the election. Campaigning among the masses.
Mormon War
Democratic President James Buchanan sent an army after Brigham Young in Salt Lake City, Utah to restore order after Young started trying to take over Utah as Mormon territory. Young was eventually replaced as governor of the territory and all confrontation ended in negotiations
Arthur Brisbane
Charles Fourier's leading disciple who interpreted that Fourierism would allow the completion of "our great political movement of 1776" by eliminating the "menial & slavish system of Hired Labor or Labor for Wages." he skillfully promoted Fourier's ideas in his influential book The Social Destiny of Man (1840); during the 1840's Brisbane & his followers started nearly one hundred cooperative communities, mostly in western New York & the Midwestern states of Ohio, Michigan, & Wisconsin; however, most of these communities quickly collapsed because of internal disputes over work responsibilities & social policies
Fourierism
A utopian socialist movement started by Charles Fourier. He wanted to counter the current industrial system to replace boredom of factory life. He advocated different forms of work each day as well as relatively free sexual activity.
John Noyes
Founder of the Oneida community, at first gathered a group of "Perfectionists" and created the doctrine of "complex marriage," but was kicked out of Vermont and fled to NY and formed the Oneida community.
Joseph Smith
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
John Fitch
Inventor of the first steamboat; charged for trips between N.J. and Penn.
Anthony Burns
(1834-1862) African American slave, he ran away and was arrested in Boston. His arrest became the center of violent protests by northern opponents of the Fugitive Slave Act
Panic of 1857
A notable sudden collapse in the economy caused by over speculation in railroads and lands, false banking practices, and a break in the flow of European capital to American investments as a result of the Crimean War. Since it did not effect the South as bad as the North, they gained a sense of superiority.
Charles Sumner
gave a speech in may 1856 called " the Crime Against Kansas" militant opponent of slavery, beat with a cane by Preston Brooks after the speech, collapsed unconscious and couldn't return to senate for 4 years, symbol throughout the north.
James Buchanan
The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.
Millard Fillmore
Successor of President Zachary Taylor after his death on July 9th 1850. He helped pass the Compromise of 1850 by gaining the support of Northern Whigs for the compromise.
John Fremont
an American military officer, explorer of California, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
Dred Scott
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
Freeport Doctrine
Douglas' opinion (the document) that no matter how the Supreme court ruled, slavery would be defeated if the people voted against it, as it would be impossible to enforce it
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Charleston Convention
Meeting that led up to civil war. Discussion of adopting pro-slavery platform and wanted the endorsement of Dred Scott.
Crittenden Compromise
1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans
General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk's orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor's forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
Wilmont Proviso
introduced on August 8, 1846, in the United States House of Representatives as a rider on a $2 million appropriations bill intended for the final negotiations to resolve the Mexican-American War, intended to get rid of slavery in territories acquired in the war.
Winfield Scott
Old Fuss and Feathers, marched on Mexico City in 1847, considered to be the ablest general of his generation
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877
John L. O'Sullivan
influential editor of the Democratic Review who coined the phrase "manifest destiny" in 1845.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Habeas Corpus
the right not to be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
Munn v. Illinois
1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Comstock Lode
first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Dakota Uprising
Many Dakota Indians lived in poverty and were in starvation. Due to this, they rose up in rebellion. After the rebellion was suppressed, a military tribunal sentenced 307 Dakota to death.
Chivington
At Sand Creek, Colorado in 1864, his militia massacred 400 Indians who apparently posed no threat.
Bozeman Trail
In attempts to block the construction of this road to MT, Sioux (under Chief Red Cloud) massacred and mutilated 82 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman's command
Dawes Severalty Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, tried to make rugged individualists out of the Indians, attempt to assimilate the Indian population into that of the American
Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania; where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave; thus weakening the fugitive slave laws and maintaining that federal power supercedes that of state power.
Charles River Bridge Case
Supreme court decision that struck down the antiquated concept of state charters being allowed to est. monopolies in the building of a country's infrastructure
Cyrus McCormick
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
Fort Sumpter
Union fort in SC; guarded Charleston Harbor; April 12, 1861 Confederacy asked for fort's surrender; Major Robert Anderson refused; Confederates open fired; Union ran out of ammunition; April 13 - union surrendered
Shiloh
This was battle fought by Grant in an attempt to capture the railroad of the South. The battle ended in withdrawal of Confederate troops, and Lincoln claimed it was a victory, but in reality the loss of life on both sides was so atrocious that neither side truly "won"
Trent Affair
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
Gettysburg
a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee's Confederate army of about 75,000.
Vicksburg
Grant besieged the city from May 18 to July 4, 1863, until it surrendered, yielding command of the Mississippi River to the Union.
Atlanta Campaign
was a series of battles fought in the Western Theater throughout northwest Georgia and the area around Atlanta, Georgia, during the summer of 1864, leading to the eventual fall of Atlanta and hastening the end of the American Civil War
Reconstruction Acts of 1867
created five military districts, required Congressional approval for new state consitutions, Confederate states give voting rights to all men, and former Confederate states must approve the 14th amendment
Ostend Manifesto
a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force. It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as states in Cuba would be southern states.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Conflict between Lee and General John Pope in August 1862, ending in a decisive victory by Lee that led to increased confidence and an attempt to convince Maryland to secede.
Morrill Act
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes.
Scalawags
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
Enrollment Act of 1863
US declared all men ages 20-45 had to join the army, substitution clause: pay $300 and get a substitute
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
Jefferson Davis
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
14th Amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company's stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
Jay Gould and Jim Fisk
Two millionare businessmen who came up with the scheme to corner the gold market during the Ulysses S. Grant's presidency.
Whiskey Ring Scandal
Before they were caught, a group of mostly Republican politicians were able to siphon off millions of dollars in federal taxes on liquor; the scheme involved an extensive network of bribes involving tax collectors, storekeepers, and others.
Indian Ring
Grant's Secretary of War, William W. Belknap, accepted bribes from companies with licenses to trade on the reservations of man with Native American tribes.
Horace Greely
\ Liberal Republican party nominated him, editor of the New York Tribune. The Democrats also nominated him. There was much mudslinging involved in this election and he lost, in more ways than one. Along with the loss of the presidency, he lost his job, his wife, and his mind within one month of the election.
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver)
Slaughterhouse Cases
A series of post-Civil War Supreme Court cases containing the first judicial pronouncements on the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. The Court held that these amendments had been adopted solely to protect the rights of freed blacks, and could not be extended to guarantee the civil rights of other citizens against deprivations of due process by state governments. These rulings were disapproved by later decisions.
Bradwell v. Illinois
The Court upheld an Illinois decision that denied a women the right to practice law because of her gender. As a result, sex-discrimination statutes did not begin being struck down on 14th Amendment grounds until well into the 20th century.
US v. Reese
• poll taxes, literacy test, are ok because they dont deny based on color
• 15th amendment does not guarantee the right to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Gave blacks the privilege of American citizenship and denied states' the right to restrict blacks of their property, testify in court, and make contracts for their labor. Johnson vetoed this, but Congress voted to override the veto.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight
Political slogan of the Democrats in the election of 1844, which claimed fifty-four degrees, forty minutes as the boundary of the Oregon territory claimed by the United States
Wade-Davis Bill of 1864
Agreement between moderate and radical republicans for Reconstruction.
Details:
Required majority of white males in Confederate states to take oath of allegiance to Union for state to hold constitutional convention.
Those that attended convention had to make "iron clad" oath = they must assert that they had never fought against Union or supported Confederacy.
Each State must abolish slavery
Reject debts the state had acquired as part of CSA
Deprive all former CSA gov't officials and officers the right to vote or hold office
Rejected by Lincoln with pocket veto (Congress adjourned after it was sent to President and President does nothing = bill dies)
Wounded Knee Massacre
The Sioux Indians, led by Sitting Bull, were captured by the US Army and were forced to surrender their weapons, the deaths of the Sioux Indians came the next morning 153 died.
Sand Creek
an attack on on undefended indian territory in the eastern planes. led to miltary and congressional investigations
Medicine Lodge Treaty
this treaty assigned reservations in existing Indian Territory to the Comanches, Plains Apaches, Kiowas, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes, bringing these tribes together with the Sioux, Shoshones, Bannocks, and Navajos
Red River War
U.S military campaign created to rid the Southern plains of Comanche, Kiowa, Southern Cheyenne, and Arapaho in 1874
Chief Joseph
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
40 Acres and a Mule
During the war gen. Sherman promised freed slaves 40 acres and an army mule, president johnson allowed original landowners to reclaim land and evict former slaves.
Independent Treasury
Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840 which created this that took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation.
Bland Allison Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Hepburn Act
Gave ICC enough power to regulate the economy. It allowed it to set freight rates and required a uniform system of accounting by regulated transportation companies.
Louis Sullivan
United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function' (1856-1924)
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890. used photography.
Edward Bellamy
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Bessemer Process
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
J.P. Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Edwin Drake
Successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil near Titusville, PA. Started an oil boom across Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas
Middle Management
the level of management that includes general managers, division managers, and branch and plant managers who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling
Walter Scott
Ivanhoe
Producerism
The argument that real economic wealth is created by people who make their living by physical labor, and that merchants, lawyers, bankers, and other middlemen unfairly gain their wealth from such "producers." In the late nineteenth century, pro-ducerism was a popular ideology among farmers, skilled tradesmen, and factory workers.
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Open to pretty much everybody, but collapsed due to disorganization.
Anthony Comstock
Persuaded Congress in 1873 to pass the "Comstock Law" which prohibited the mailing or transportation of obscene and lewd material and photographs. No condoms in the mail, people.
Charles W Eliot
became president of Harvard and pushed for the "practical" cirriculum in which students would choose their courses
National Trade Union
Organized in 1834, this association was created after the New York Trades Union called a convention of delegates from numerous city centrals. Headed by Ely Moore, who was elected to Congress on the Tammany ticket, this union disintegrated along with a number of other national conventions with the Panic of 1837.
Feminism
the belief that women should possess the same political and economic rights as men
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
Samuel Gompers
led the AFL (American Federation of Labor), a skilled craft union, fought for wages and working conditions, they went on strike, boycotted and used collective bargaining
Lacey Act
1900 - Federal law that prohibits importing, exporting, transporting, selling, receiving, accquiring, or purchasing of plants, animals or fish without a federal permit. Requires that we restore areas that a species was close to becoming extinct
Scott Joplin
United States composer who was the first creator of ragtime to write down his compositions (1868-1917), maple leaf rag
Alexander Berkman
This man ruined the Homestead Strike by attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick, causing sympathy for the strikers to evaporate. Nearly 5 months after the strike began, the strike failed and only 1/5 of the original strikers were hired back at lower wages
Henry Clay Frick
was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.
William Jennings
John Scopes attorney for the state.
Helen Campbell
Wrote children's books. 1880's and 1890's was one of the most vocal reforms on issues of poverty. Wrote The Problem of the Poor. Created the New York Consumer's League which had a "white list" of stores that treated women employees fairly and encouraged New York's wealthiest to shop only at stores on the white list.
Tom Johnson
mayor of cleveland from 1901-1909. battle corporations and party bosses to lower streetcar fares, improve food inspections, and build parks
Josiah Quincy
New England Prison reformer who established different places for juvenile correction
Florence Kelley
An advocate for improving the lives of women and children. (Social Welfare). She was appointed chief inspector of factories in Illinois. She helped win passage of the Illinois factory act in 1893 which prohibited child labor and limited women's working hours.
Triangle Fires
A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
James Blaine
a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland
Samuel Tilden
Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
James B Weaver
former Civil War general who ran for president with the Greenback Party (1880) and the Populist Party (1892).
Charles Guiteau
an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. He was executed by hanging.
Pendleton Act of 1882
federal law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit.
Tom Watson
Elected to the U.S congress, became known as a champion of Georgia's farmers. He was a Populist who supported interracial unity, but as time went on he became horribly racist.
William Jennings Bryant
ran against McKinley in the 1896 election, gave his famous "cross of gold" speech, wanted the silver/bimetallism standard. prosecutor of scopes in the monkey trial.
Joseph Pulitzer
creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism, established Pulitzer prizes
National Labor Union
founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
Settlement House Movement
Creation of places that offered social services to urban poor - often food, shelter, and basic higher education - Hull House was most famous
Farmer's Alliances
the alliances were principally concerned with local problems. They formed cooperatives and other marketing mechanisms. They established stores, banks, processing plants, and other facilities for their members- to free them from the dependence on the hated "furnishing merchants" who kept so many farmers in debt. Women played a prominent role within the Alliances 5: 1865-1900
Granger Laws
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional
Frederick Olmstead
Architect of New York's Central Park, first major public park in the United States. Helped harmonize the city and bring rural beauty. Influenced the behavior of lawless and unfortunate people. Built in the 1850s.
Injunction
An order which legally prevents something
Crime of '73
Through the coinage act of 1873, the US ended the minting of silver dollars and placed the country on the gold standard. This was attacked by those who supported an inflationary monetary policy, particularly farmers that believed in the unlimited coinage of silver.
Horatio Alger
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote "rags to riches" books praising the values of hard work
Ida Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Oliver Wendel Holmes
Jr.,A famous justice of the Supreme Court during the early 1900s. Called the "Great Dissenter" because he spoke out against the inposition of national regulations and standards, and supported the states' rights to experiment with social legislation.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Elkins Act
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treaty
Buena Varilla compromised with Hay and T. Roosevelt to engineer a revolution in Panama against the Colombian government, therefore allowing the US to build a canal there 6: 1900-1918
Federal Trade Commission
Established to preserve competition by preventing unfair business practices and investigates complaints against companies
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.(basically propoganda)
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty
Progressive Movement
reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning control of the government to the people, restoring economic opportunities, and correcting injustices in American life.
International Workers of the World (Wobblies)
militant, radical union. favored socialism and opposed free enterprise. disliked by big business and less radical unions, opposed the American Federation of Labor and persecuted during the Red Scare.
Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
Article X
This part of the Versailles Treaty morally bound the US to aid any member of the League of Nations that experienced any external aggression.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
Irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations
Reservationists
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made - led by Henry Cabot Lodge
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Sphere of Influence
A foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities.
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
W.E.B. DuBois
black intellectual who challenged Booker T. Washington's ideas on combating Jim Crow; he called for the black community to demand immediate equality and was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.
16th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Gentlemen's Agreement
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Volstead Act
The Act specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
Birth of a Nation
Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.
Child Labor Act
Placed a 10% tax on profits of child emplying companies, it was struck down by the supreme court (Bailey v. Drexel Furniture, 1922 court's opinion that this was an inappropriate use of congress' power to tax)
Mann-Elkin Act
1910, gave the Interstate Comerce Commission the power to suspend new railroad rates, along with oversee telephone and cable companie; included communications
Sussex Pledges
pledges by the Germans before US entrance into WWI to stop using submarine warfare against US ships and to pledge not to destroy any more American citizens, in time they violated these pledges 7: 1934-1941
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
Insular Cases
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
Charles and Mary Beard
The most influential historians of their day that stressed economic factors in the development of tracing modern society and emphasized the clash of economic interests as central to American history. pointed out economic factors surrounding the founding fathers
John Pershing
commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), was sent by wilson to capture pancho villa
Anthracite Coal Strike
1902 United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government and Roosevelt to intervene on the side of labor (first time)
Northern Securities Case
Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.
Eugene V. Debs
led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union
Muller v. Oregon
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Samuel Jones
In Ohio, he introduced profit sharing in his factory, established playgrounds, free kindergartens, and lodging houses for tramps.
Triple Wall of Privilege
President Wilson called for an all-out war on what he called "the triple wall of privilege": the tariff, the banks, and the trusts. His first step, with working with the tariffs, included making an appearance to the Congress in 1913. There, he the Underwood Tariff Bill was passed which helped in lowering tariffs greatly. He next attacked the severely suffering banking system by putting into place the Federal Reserve Act. Like with the farming act, this Act split the U.S. into twelve regions with a Federal Reserve bank in each region. 7: 1934-1941
Bull Moose Party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
Robert La Follette
Progressive Wisconsin governor who attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary
Insurgent's Revolt
Cuban rebellion against Spanish rule - supported by American sugar planters - yellow press coverage of the Spanish backlash led to the Spanish-American War
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
William Seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.
Josiah Strong
a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas
Alfred T Mahan
Author who argued in 1890 that the economic future of the United States rested on new overseas markets protected by a larger navy. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
Richard Olney
Began as a leading corporate lawyer who noted that the Interstate Commerce Act could be used by the railroads. He became Attorney General and helped to stop the Pullman Strike. He later bacame the Secretary of State under President Cleveland. He declared to the British that by trying to dominate Venezuela they were violating the Monroe Doctrine. U.S. mediated the Veneauelan boundary dispute.
Dellome Letter
Spain basically said we would never go to war with them. Hearst got a hold of it and it helped start the war.
Albert Beveridge
this Republican Senator from Indiana was an advocate for expansion who spread the message to expand and to help other countries of the world through Congress
McKinley
said US should go to war b/c of humanitarian issues, to help our fellow revolutionary brothers, and avoid trade injury. took hawaii as coaling station,
Henry Teller
A amendment was named after, which declared that the United States would guarantee Cuba its independence on the Spanish were driven from the island.
Commodore Dewey
Followed Roosevelt's order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898; was immediately promoted to admiral, becoming the first her of the war; his victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies
San Juan Hill
Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches
Treaty of Paris 1898
Signed by the United States and Spain in December 1898, this treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Spain recognized Cuba's independence and assumed the Cuban debt; it also ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. At the insistence of the U.S. representatives, Spain also ceded the Phillipines. The Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899.
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood. However, she was a socialist and was persecuted because of this during the Red Scare.
Calvin Coolidge
taciturn, pro-business president (1923-1929) who took over after Harding's death, restored honesty to government, and accelerated the tax cutting and antiregulation policies of his predecessor; his laissez-faire policies brought short-term prosperity from 1923 to 1929.
Welfare Capitalism
when companies provide incentives to build better relationships with employees; health insurance, safety standards, buy stock in the company
Red Scare
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
Mitchell Palmer
Was head of the Witch hunt that was related to the red scare that occured around the time of the Russian revolution. He jailed anyone who spoke of communism or anarchy. The people who were put in jail were treated terribly.
Herbert Hoover
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF)
-Jane Addams was a leader.
-denounced imperialism, stressed the suffering caused by militarism and proposed social justice measures.
-came under fierce attack during the Red Scare because of the presence of Socialist women among among its ranks.
Warren Harding
Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over
Associated State
Herbert Hoover and the Commerce Department created two thousand trade associations representing companies in almost every major industry and worked closely with the associations, providing statistical research, suggesting industry-wide standards, and promoting stable prices and wages. Hoover hoped that through voluntary business cooperation with government—an "associated state"—he could achieve what progressive reformers had sought through governmental regulation
Teapot Dome Scandal
Secretary of the Interior (Albert Fall) leased government land in California and at Teapot Dome, Wyoming to 2 oil executives- Fall became the first Cabinet official to be sent to prison
McNary-Haugen Bills
A series of complicated measures designed to prop up and stabilize farm prices; the government purchases farm surpluses and either stores them until prices rose or sells them on the world market; President Calvin Coolidge viewed these measures as unwarranted federal interference in the economy, and vetoed it
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
Scopes Monkey Trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Nativism
a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
National Origins Act
Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890. Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely
Harlem Renaissance
black artistic movement in New York City in the 1920s, when writers, poets, painters, and musicians came together to express feelings and experiences, especially negro pride.
Langston Hughes
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Louis Armstrong
Started improvisation and solos. Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
Duke Ellington
United States jazz composer and piano player and bandleader (1899-1974), brought jazz to the cities
Mamie Smith
-Recorded "crazy blues"
-Marked the beginning of the "classical blues" era
Race Records
Recordings of performances by African American musicians produced mainly for sale to African American listeners.
Marcus Garvey
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927 after a scandal involving his Black Star Steamship industry.
Pan-Africanism
the ideal that Africans should unite and Africa should not be ruled by Europeans, it should be run by Africans; unity of all Africans to embrace their culture and advocated an appreciation of African cultures, better education, and racial equality
Gertrude Stein
Coined the term "lost generation". American writer of experimental novels, poetry, essays, operas, and plays. Her works include Three Lives (1908), Tender Buttons (1914), and The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1933).
Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway fought in Italy in 1917. He later became a famous author who wrote "The Sun Also Rises" (about American expatriates in Europe) and "A Farewell to Arms." In the 1920's he became upset with the idealism of America versus the realism he saw in World War I.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Wrote the Great Gatsby. Was part of both the jazz age and the lost generation. Wrote books encouraging the flapper culture, and books scorning wealthy people being self-centered.
Oligopoly
a market structure in which a few large firms dominate a market
Smooth-Holly Tariff
Tariff Hoover initiated to attempt to assist the economy at the beginning of the Great Depression Era. Was a complete failure.
Ford Model-T
The first legitimate car that was common among Americans
Charlie Chaplin
English comedian and film maker; portrayed a downtrodden little man in baggy pants and bowler hat
Flappers
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
Radio Corporation of America (RCA)
a company developed during WWI that was designed to pool radio patents w/ government approval; the formation of the RCA gave the US almost total control of the emerging mass medium of broadcasting
Soft Power
co-optive power that presses others through attraction and persuasion to change their ideas, beliefs, values, and behaviors
Assembly Line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Bruce Barton
A founder of the "new profession" of advertising, which used the persuasion ploy, seduction, and sexual suggestion. He was a prominent New York partner in a Madison Avenue firm. He published a best seller in 1925, The Man Nobody Knows, suggesting that Jesus Christ was the greatest ad man of all time. He even praised Christ's "executive ability." He encouraged any advertising man to read the parables of Jesus.
Middletown
a famous study of power in a community during the 1920's-1930's by Robert and Helen Lund.
United Fruit
The United Fruit Company was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas) grown on Third World plantations and sold in the United States and Europe. The company was formed in 1899 from the merger of Minor C. Keith's banana-trading concerns with Andrew W. Preston's Boston Fruit Company. Turned Honduras into the Banana Republic by use of dollar diplomacy.
Tariff of 1842
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.
Sojourner Truth
Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery. Wandered the country giving her speeches.
William Tecumseh Sherman
United States general who was commander of all Union troops in the West he captured Atlanta and led a destructive march to the sea that cut the Confederacy in two (1820-1891)
Margaret Fuller
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom" "progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the past".
Washington Irving
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
John Tyler
elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
Fire Eaters
refers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the Confederate States of America.
Edwin M. Stanton
Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.
Hudson Bay Company
the oldest commercial corporation in North America and one of the oldest in the world. Specialized in trading furs. Traded with Canada.
Charles Finney
A leading evangelist of the Second Great Awakening, he preached that each person had capacity for spiritual rebirth and salvation and that through individual effort could be saved. His concept of "utility of benevolence" proposed the reformation of society as well as of individuals. Founder of the Social Gospel.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Treaty under which government agreed to close Bozeman trail, and Sioux agreed to live on reserve along Missouri River. The Sioux were forced into this treaty. The treaty was only a temporary to warfare between Native Americans and Whites.
Archie Bunker
The central character in the 1970s television comedy series "All in the Family." His family appreciated and loved him, even though he was bad tempered, ill informed, and highly prejudiced against virtually all minority groups. The creators of the show intended his character to be a parody of close-mindedness in Americans. To their surprise, many people adopted him as their hero.
Era of Limits
President Gerald Ford
Lowered expectations, national drift
Energy crisis, economic stagnation
Oil shocks, 1973,1979
Inflation, recession, shortages
Deindustrialization: the "Rust Belt"
International Frustration: South Vietnam falls, 75
Endangered species act- 73
OPEC
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Energy Crisis
United States had become heavily dependent on inexpensive imported oil, mostly from the Persian Gulf
Middle Eastern states threw off the remnants of European colonialism, they demanded concessions for access to the fields
Foreign companies still extracted the oil, but now they did so under profit-sharing agreements with the Persian Gulf states
Formed a cartel, OPEC
Demand soon outpaced supply and prices skyrocketed
Silent Spring
1962 book by Rachel Carson that started the environmental movement
National Environmental Policy Act
A law passed in 1969 requiring agencies to issue an environmental impact statement before undertaking any major action affecting the environment.
Three Mile Island
An accident at the nuclear plant at this location that caused a radiation leak and forced the evacuation of 140,000 people near the site. The story made headlines around the world and seemed to confirm people's fears about nuclear power.
Stagflation
During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.
Nixon's Economic Policy
temporary price and wage controls in 1971 in an effort to curb inflation
removing the United States from the gold standard, which allowed the dollar to float in international currency markets
effectively ended the Bretton Woods monetary system established after World War II
Whip Inflation Now (WIN)
a program by the Ford Administration to curb inflation and dramatic price increases by putting pressure on businesses to lower prices and deter consumers from hording goods.
Deindustrialization
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
Howard Jarvis
anti-tax activist, lead the jarvis tax payers association, lead prop 13, believed that taxes are tyrannical
Proposition 13
the tax revolt led by the new right had its first public beginnings in 1978, when Howard Jarvis, a conservative activist in California, launched the first successful major citizens' tax revolt in California with this proposition, a referendum question on th4e state ballot rolling back property rates.
Gerald Ford
the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
Pollster Louis Harris
should a politician "defend that [Nixon's] pardon in any part of this country, North or South, [he] is almost literally going to have his head handed to him."
Watergate babies
aSeventy-five new Democratic members of the House came to Washington in 1975, many of them under the age of forty-five, and the press dubbed them "Watergate babies."
Young and reform-minded, the Watergate babies solidified huge Democratic majorities in both houses of Congress
Eliminated HUAC
reduced the number of votes needed to end a filibuster from 67 to 60—a move intended to weaken the power of the minority to block legislation
dismantled the existing committee structure, which had entrenched power in the hands of a few elite committee chairs.
Ethics in Government Act
decentralize power in Washington and bring greater transparency to American government
Ethics in Government Act
forced political candidates to disclose financial contributions and limited the lobbying activities of former elected officials
Keynesian Consensus
Liberalist. Consumer spending instead of industrial output, full employment, and government spending instead of regulation.
James Earl Carter
Won the Democratic presidential nomination in 1976
pledged to restore morality to the White House
common man, Christian
inexperienced
chilly relations with congressional leaders, relied on inexperienced advisors from Georgia
Carter's Economic Policy
lift the New Deal-era regulation of the airline, trucking, and railroad industries.
Deregulation stimulated competition and cut prices, but it also drove firms out of business and hurt unionized workers.
proved ineffective at reigniting economic growth
lectured Americans about the nation's "crisis of the spirit." He called energy conservation "the moral equivalent of war"—or, in the media's shorthand, "MEOW,"
Affirmative Action
LBJ's executive order-designed to correct the effects of past discrimination; requirement by law that positive steps be taken to increase the number of minorities in business, schools, colleges, and labor
Bakke v. University of California
(1978) Ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances.
Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
In this 1971 Supreme Court Decision, the court ruled that, even though the schools in the district worked out to be only minimally integrated because of the full black or white neighborhood, the schools had to be intergraded based on the percentage of blacks in the whole district, meaning that blacks had to be bussed over great distances to integrate schools that naturally sat in all white neighborhoods. This cause a great push-back from middle America, who saw the end of the neighborhood school.
Milliken v. Bradley
1974 Supreme Court case that ruled that desegregation plans could not require students to move across school district lines, which was a victory for anti-busing proponents who felt that Swann v Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education was an injustice
Oil Embargo
Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford's time in office.
Death of bin Laden
May 1, 2011; US military found and killed him in Abbadabad, Pakistan
Tea Party
a conservative and libertarian populist political movement that endorses reduced government spending, opposition to taxation, and adherence to an originalist interpretation of the United States Constitution.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
Commonly referred to as the Stimulus Package; intended to create jobs and promote investment and consumer spending during the recession that followed the financial collapse in 2008. No Republicans in the House and only 3 Republicans in the Senate voted for this bill, arguing against the massive growth in federal spending.
Barack Obama
Illinois Senator who won the presidency in 2008, first African-American President, advocate for universal healthcare, an end to the Iraqi War, and economic recovery.
Election of 2008
Barack Obama vs. John McCain. 365 electoral votes to Obama, 173 electoral votes to McCain, Obama/Biden defeat McCain/Palin.
55 mph
speed limit implemented by Congress in an attempt to save money on gas
Emergency Stabilization Act
a $700 billion bailout plan created to stabilize the nation's economy and restore the confidence in the banking and financial industries, 2008 with Bush in office
2008 Banking Crisis
we bailed out the banks so they don't fail
2008 Housing Crash
belief that owning a home is good for economy, encouraged home ownership, people started getting loans and stuff on bad credit, government agencies owning mortgages because they could make a lot of money potentially, people who would default on loans then banks take house then sell, BUT economy goes down, houses worth less, less people can pay, stuck paying things they cant afford
2008 Auto Industry
selling gas guzzling SUVs, no fuel efficiency, Detroit is crippled by collapse, had to be bailed out by government
Economic Collapse of 2008
Dow Jones Industrial Average had lost half its total value and major banks, insurance companies, and financial institutions were on the verge of collapse
automobile industry was near bankruptcy
Millions of Americans lost their jobs, and the unemployment rate surged to 10 percent
Housing prices dropped by as much as 40 percent in some parts of the country, and millions of Americans defaulted on their mortgages
Environmentalism
An ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity, and feminism.
Rachel Carson
Marine biologist and author of Silent Spring who exposed the harmful affects of pesticides
Earth Day
a holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970
EPA
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Clean Air Act
1970- law that established national standards for states, strict auto emissions guidelines, and regulations, which set air pollution standardds for private industry
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
Water Pollution Control Act
Provided funds to build sewage treatment facilities and required industries to remove or treat pollution in water discharged to a lake or stream.
Endangered Species Act
(1973) identifies threatened and endangered species in the U.S., and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations
Postindustrial-service Economy
produce fewer automobiles, appliances, and televisions and more financial services, health care services, and management consulting services—not to mention many millions of low-paying jobs in the restaurant, retail, and tourist industries
"Rust Belt"
The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
"urban crisis"
...
Abraham Beame
-Was the mayor of New York City from 1974 to 1977
- He presided over the city during the fiscal crisis of the mid-1970s, during which the city was almost forced to declare bankruptcy.
-He slashed the city workforce, froze salaries, and reconfigured the budget, which proved unsatisfactory until reinforced by actions from newly created state-sponsored entities and the granting of federal funds. He also served during the blackout crisis
-First Jewish Mayor
"tax revolt"
1978, Howard Jarvis led this revolt in CA, with proposition 13
Howard Jarvis
anti-tax activist, lead the jarvis tax payers association - lead prop 13 believed that taxes are tyrannical
Pardoning of Nixon
Gerald Ford's reasons behind pardoning Nixon:
Thought that it would heal the wounds of the country
Criticisms against pardoning Nixon: people thought that he might have made a deal for vice president promising Nixon the Pardon
Impact on the 1974 midterm elections: indicated the public's disapproval of the pardon and the impact of Watergate in general
Walter Mondale
He was the vice president of Carter and when he won the democratic nomination he was defeated by a landslide by Reagan. He was the first presidential candidate to have a woman vice president, Geraldine Ferraro.
Deregulation
The lifting of restrictions on business, industry, and professional activities for which government rules had been established and that bureaucracies had been created to administer.
"Reverse Discrimination"
The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status.
Busing
1968 south had resisted desegregation
federal courts got serious and, in a series of stiff decisions, ordered an end to "dual school systems."
Where schools remained highly segregated, the courts increasingly endorsed the strategy of busing students to achieve integration
Our Bodies Ourselves
1973. produced by the nonprofit organization Our Bodies Ourselves. it contains information related to many aspects of women's health and sexuality.
Equal Rights Amendment
..., Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.
Phyllis Schlafly
..., 1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
STOP ERA
Schlafly became the most visible and effective opponent of the Equal Rights Amendment during the 1970s as the organizer of the "Stop the ERA" movement, widely credited with stopping it from achieving ratification by its legislative deadline.
Griswold v Connecticut
married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment
Roe v Wade
established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health or unborn child in 3rd. inferred from right of privacy established in griswald v. connecticut
Harvey Milk
the first openly gay man to be elected to public office. Was elected to serve in the SF Board of Supervisors. Assassinated in 1978
Anita Bryant
entertainer and crusader against gay and lesbian rights in FL during the late 1970's, former Miss USA, Save Our Children campaign
"Save our Children"
Anita Bryant's campaign against homosexuals
Warren Court
The Warren Court was led by Earl Warren who was nominated by president Eisenhower to be Chief of Justice. The court took an activist stance, helping to shape national policy by taking a forceful stand on a number of key issues of the day.
Burger Court
a conservative jurist appointed by Nixon that nonetheless continued the judicial activism of the Warren Court as seen by Roe v. Wade; this was due to the other members of the court rather than his own liberal beliefs
Furman v Georgia
This 1972 Supreme Court case struck down all state laws allowing the death penalty stating that they allowed for too much discretion on the part of the judge and jury resulting in lack of consistent administration of the penalty.
Gregg v GA
Presented a specific system for deciding on death penalty as a sentence so death penalty sentencing resumed
An American Family
-Aired in PBS in 1973
-Filmed the Loud family from Santa Barbara
-On national TV, the world saw the family begin to fall apart
"family wage"
a wage paid to male workers sufficient to support a dependent wife and children., An ideal of the trade-union movement in the nineteenth century; it refers to a wage that is paid to a man and is sufficient to support him, his wife, and his children.
Lordstown, Ohio
Lordstown strikers spoke out against what they saw as an inhumane industrial system.
Sparked strikes across the nation
workers won a measure of public attention but typically gained little economic ground
Good Times
TV show that dealt with poverty in the inner city
Laverne & Shirley
TV show that focused on young working women in the 1950s
Bruce Springsteen
whose lyrics lamented the disappearance of the white working class, became the decade's most popular new rock artist
Johnny Paycheck
became star by turning the hardscrabble lives of people in small towns and working-class communities into rock anthems that filled arenas
John Cougar
became star by turning the hardscrabble lives of people in small towns and working-class communities into rock anthems that filled arenas
"sexual revolution"
premaritial sex, homosexuality, sex in general became more common and accepted
Midnight Cowboy
John Schlesinger, director
First and only X-rated film to win the Best Picture Oscar
Story of a young man who moves from Texas to NYC with dreams of becoming a hustler
birth of rating system
MPAA
(Motion Picture Association of America) is a trade organization that represents the major film studios
Charlie's Angels
frivolous, lighthearted show where heterosexual couples explored the often confusing, and usually comical, landscape of sexual morality
Three's Company
frivolous, lighthearted show where heterosexual couples explored the often confusing, and usually comical, landscape of sexual morality. A show about two women and one man living together in the 1970s. Originally was not aired because of the social conflict it caused. ABC eventually aired it despite being boycotted by their sponsors. The show was very popular.
Evangelical Resurgence
In the 60s and 70s, renewed Chrisitian values
Billy Graham
United States evangelical preacher famous as a mass evangelist (born in 1918), republican
"The Year of the Evangelical"
...
Helen Andelin
the founder of the Fascinating Womanhood Movement (wrote the book Fascinating Womanhood
Fascinating Womanhood
evangelical response to the women's movement. Where the latter encouraged women to be independent and to seek equality with men, Andelin taught that "submissiveness will bring a strange but righteous power over your man."
Barry Goldwater
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history
Ronald Reagan's "A Time For Choosing"
Supporting goldwater, warned that if we "trade our freedom for the soup kitchen of the welfare state," the nation would "take the first step into a thousand years of darkness."
The Conscience of a Conservative
Republican Senator Barry Goldwater's 1960 book, in which he advocated an abolition of the income tax, sale of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and a drastic overhaul of Social Security.
John Birch Society
Right-wing group named for an American missionary to China who had been executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies of the Great Society programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren for his liberal, "Communist" actions in the Supreme Court.
Phyllis Schafly
anti-feminism, anti- Equal Rights Amendment. wrote A Choice, Not an Echo, She promoted the Stop ERA campaign because she thought that the Equal rights Amendment would ruin the traditional family. Conservative activist
A Choice Not an Echo
accused moderate Republicans of being Democrats in disguise, helped goldwater's popularity, encouraged the party to embrace a defiant conservatism, grassroots republicans vs Rockefellers kingmakers, Phyllis Schlafly
Richard Viguerie
Political individual who created the direct mail system. He worked for YAF (Young Americans for Liberty) "funding father of modern conservative strategy//funded Conservative Digest
3 Components of Conservative Movement
Morality, free-market economy, anticommunism
Pat Robertson
A Southern Baptist televangelist minister active in the 1970's who preached a conservative message and is associated with the New Right, "moral majority" movement. His extremely Christian and conservative remarks are sometimes seen as controversial.
Jerry Falwell
Led Moral Majority to restore Christian values to society, conservative
Old Time Gospel Hour
new generation of preachers brought religious conversion directly into Americans' living rooms through television, Jerry Falwell's show
William F. Buckley
He launched the conservative National Magazine in 1955; founded Young Americans for Freedom in 1960; and started a conservative TV talk show, Firing Line, in 1966.
National Review
A 1993 effort, led by Vice President Al Gore, to make the bureaucracy work better and cost less. emphasized customer satisfaction and decentralization of management
Milton Friedman
An American economist, leader of the Chicago School of Economics and advisor to President Ronald Reagan. He rejected the Keynesian ideas of economy and strongly believed that a free non-regulated economy is important for Democracy.
Moral Majority
a political organization founded by Rev. Jerry Falwell, an evangelical minister who preached with great success agaisnt sexual permissiveness, abortion, feminism, and the spread of gay rights, loyal to reagan
President Carter
Panama Canal Treaty, diplomacy with China, end of recognition of Taiwan; little accomplished domestically due to conservative opposition, foreign policy more successful; Washington outsider, Experienced high interest rates, inflation, increased government spending, rising unemployment, decreased union membership, Camp David Accords, inexperienced
Love Canal
An area in Niagara Falls, NY where seepage from buried toxic wastes contaminated local soil and water. In 1968, President Carter relocated almost all the residents of Love Canal. This incident provided impetus for the 1980 Superfund legislation.
Panama Canal
Carter eliminated a decades-old symbol of Yankee imperialism by signing a treaty on September 7, 1977, turning control of the Panama Canal over to Panama (effective December 31, 1999
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. Mediated by Carter.
Salt II
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
1980 Olympics
international sporting event held in Moscow; boycotted by the US and other western nations in protest of Afghanistan invasion
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.
Shah Pahlavi
the leader of Iran after World War II that was supported by Western government and Western oil companies. He tried to weaken the political influence of religion in Iran. He was forced to flee from Iran in January 1979.
Ayatollah Khomeini
Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic. (p. 859)
Iran-Iraq War
Lasted from 1980-1988; Saddam invaded Iran in order to help establish a platform for leadership in the Arab world (invaded areas that were rich in resources), afraid of the spillover effects of the Iranian Revolution (Khomeini encouraging revolution, especially in Shiite Iraq); war was a stalemate and more closely resembled the trench warfare of WWI than other recent conflicts; helped to mobilize and unite the Iranian people in the aftermath of the revolution.
President Reagan
Limited power of labor unions; Involved in Iran-Contra Scandal, INF treaty. Iran-Iraq War, and reducing inflation rate; supply-side economics; more homeless; sharply increased military spending.
Sunbelt
A region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest that has seen substantial population growth in recent decades, partly fueled by a surge in retiring baby boomers who migrate domestically, as well as the influx of immigrants, both legal and illegal.
"Reagan Democrats"
The nickname given to southern and blue-collar workers who began to vote Republicans in 1980 due to their socially conservative values.
Boll Weevils,
Term for conservative southern Democrats who voted increasingly for Republican issues during the Carter and Reagan administrations. (1035)
"Reaganomics"
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
supply-side economics
An economic philosophy that holds the sharply cutting taxes will increase the incentive people have to work, save, and invest. Greater investments will lead to more jobs, a more productive economy, and more tax revenues for the government.
Economic Recovery Tax Act
in the summer of 1981, the largest tax reduction in the US history. Rates of individuals with the lowest incomes fell from 14 percent to 11 percent, while those of individuals with the high incomes dropped from 70 to 50 percent. The law gave corporations tax breaks and cut taxes on capital gains, gifts, and inheritances.
Iran-Contra Affair,
President Reagan authorized the off-the-books sale of stolen weapons from the Pentagon to Iran in order to fund the Nicaraguan Contras; Congress had forbidden him to use government funds to support the Contras; helped keep Iraq from winning the Iraq-Iran War (did not want a Middle Eastern superpower); very illegal (Iran was considered a terrorist state) and almost caused Reagan to be impeached.
Oliver North
..., One of the chief figures in the Iran-Contra scandal was Marine Colonel Oliver North, an aide to the NSC. He admitted to covering up their actions, including shredding documents to destroy evidence. IMP. Although Reagan did approve the sale of arms to Iran he was not aware of the diversion of money to the contras. This still tainted his second term in office.
Libya
..., This is another of the countries in the region whose people are protesting against their leader. It is a dictatorship. America is currently involved in their conflict.
AIDS
..., a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
Apple Computers
..., groundbreaking company begun by Steve Wozniak & Steve Jobs
NAFTA
..., North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a pact that unites Canada, Mexico, and the United States in one of the world's largest free-trade zones. It builds on a free-trade agreement between the United States and Canada that became effective in 1989
Election of 1988
..., George Bush (winner) vs. Michael Dukakis. Bush was elected on the strength of his association with Regan, seeming poised to confirm the ascendancy of his predecessor's conservative values.
Jesse Jackson
..., an African-American candidate for the Democratic ticket, campaigned for a "rainbow coalition" of minorities and the disadvantaged
Rainbow Coalition,
..., Jesse Jackson was the first african american politician to make a strong run for the presidency by seeking support of all minority groups under the banner of this
Michael Dukakis,,
..., He was governor of Massachusetts and George Bush's demorcratic opponet in the election of 1988
"No New Taxes"
Bush promised Reagan legacy
Willie Horton
As Governor of Massachussets, Michael Dukakis had supported a prison furlough program for inmates in state prisons. Willie Horton, a convicted murderer, was on one of the furloughs when he committed a rape and assault in Maryland. George H.W. Bush used Willie Horton (ran ads) as an example of Dukakis' ineptitude and lack of responsibility. Dukakis would lose the election.
Fall of the Soviet Empire
Lacking the incentives of a market economy, most enterprises hoarded raw materials, employed too many workers, and did not develop new products. Russian economy fell further and further behind those of capitalist societies, and most people in the Soviet bloc endured a low standard of living. Gorbachev recognized the need for internal economic reform and an end to the war in Afghanistan, introduced policies of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring), which encouraged widespread criticism of the rigid institutions and authoritarian controls of the Communist regime. Boris yeltsin, president of the Russian Republic, thwarted their efforts to oust Gorbachev from office, broke the dominance of the Communist Party. Soviet Union broke up.
Berlin Wall
Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Boris Yeltsin
president of the Russian Republic in 1991--the first post-Cold War leader; he came to power by helping Mikhail Gorbachev when hard-line Communists attempted to overthrow him--but soon forced Gorbachev to resign & declared an end to the USSR
Manuel Noriega
Panama leader who was overthrown in a 1989 US invasion; Tried and imprisoned for drug trafficking
Tiananmen Square
Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.
Operation Desert Storm
Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition. (in Kuwait against Iraq)
Suddam Hussein
took control of govt. in 1979, used assassination, imprisonment, execution to remove threats to the party, claimed iranian waterway, dropped poison on 5,000 kurds
Savings & Loan Crisis
Savings and loans companies were given ability to raise interest rates on deposits and make loans, the failure of 1,000 savings and loan banks in 1989 resulted due to risky business practices
Rodney King
An African-American driver who, in 1991 was stopped and then beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers starting the L.A. Riots.
LA Riots
Riots caused by the assault of Rodney King by police officers
Exxon Valdez
A large oil spill occurred off the coast of Alaska in 1989 when this giant tanker hit a reef in Prince William Sound.
H. Ross Perot
1992 election--blunt, forthright Texas billionaire who became an independent candidate by tapping popular resentment of the federal bureaucracy and by promising tough, uncompromising leadership to deal with the fiscal crisis and other problems of government. At some times he led both Bush and Clinton in public opinion polls; Perot won 19 percent of the popular vote in the election. Took votes from Bush and resulted in Clinton's election instead.
William Jefferson Clinton
1992 Dem.presidential candidate-- President. promoted himself as "New Democrat" (centrists who south to reconcile liberal and conservative ideals), 1993-2001, youngest to be reeelected, Democrat ever since FDR, universal healthcare, higher taxes on wealthy, cut federal budget deficit, freedom choice of abortion = success
Don't Ask Don't Tell
Allowed homosexuals to enter army as long as they kept their private life secret/out of the open, under clinton
Whitewater
An Ame political controversy that began with the real estate dealings of Bill and Hillary Clinton and their associates, [Jim and Susan McDougal] in the Whitewater Development Corporation, a failed business venture in which the Clintons had an economic advantage. David Hale, the source of criminal allegations against Clinton, claimed in November 1993 that Bill, while govnr of AK, pressured him to provide an illegal $300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, Kenneth Starr major player
Newt Gingrich
Was the Republican speaker in the House. He pushed for more conservative legislation during Clinton's presidency, was against clinton. Contract With America
Contract With America
In the 1994 congressional elections, Congressman Newt Gingrich had Republican candidates sign a document in which they pledged their support for such things as a balanced budget amendment, term limits for members of Congress, and a middle-class tax cut.
Columbine
In 1999, two students in Littleton, Colorado, brought weapons to school and killed 12 students and wounded many others before killing themselves. The tragedy was one of seven such shootings in the US that year, and led to changes in gun control, school safety measures, and the monitoring of media violence. Shows how one case study can have powerful, unnecessary and dangerous effects.
OJ Simpson
Accused of the murder of Nicole Brown-his ex wife, aquitted basedon the evidence that the "glove did not fit" despite the fact that he was clearly guilty.
Monica Lewinsky
1990s; had affair with Clinton who denied it under oath, but there was physical evidence; he was impeached for perjury and his resulting political battles kept him from being productive in his final term paving way for the seemingly moral Bush in 2000
Balkans 1990s
In the 1990's, ethnic rivalries led to war and "ethnic cleansing" as the Serbs attempted to rid their country of other groups through mass-murder.
USS Cole
A destroyer that was attacked by Al-Qaeda suicide bombers in Aden.
Impeachment of Clinton
Kenneth Starr charges Clinton with lying under oath, obstruction of justice, witness tampering, and abuse of power in response to the Monica Lewinsky affair; however, Clinton's popularity and presidential performance won him acquittal in a Senate trial
Election of 2000
Bush v. Gore; Bush won although Gore won popular vote; controversy over the final vote count in Florida; settled by Supreme Court decision in favor of Bush
Bush v Gore
this case ruled in favor of Bush by saying that recounting the votes in certain counties of Florida was unconstitutional because of equal protection of the law; Gore's wish to make the process as simple and painless as possible backfired
Ralph Nader
A leftist American politician who promotes the environment, fair consumerism, and social welfare programs. His book Unsafe at Any Speed brought attention to the lack of safety in American automobiles.
9/11
A series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001.
Al Qaeda
a network of Islamic terrorist organizations, led by Osama bin Laden, that carried out the attacks on the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998, the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000, and the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001
"War on Terror"
After 9/11, President George W. Bush declared a worldwide "war on terrorism" aimed at defeating international terrorist organizations, destroying terrorist training camps, and bringing terrorists themselves to justice.
Taliban
fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda
Afghanistan
Rise of the taliban provided a safe heaven for al queda and attack of 9/11, led to our invasion of them.
USA Patriot Act
law passed due to 9/11 attacks; sought to prevent further terrorist attacks by allowing greater government access to electronic communications and other information; criticized by some as violating civil liberties
Bush Doctrine
After 9/11, US policy that we would preemptively attack any terrorist or the states that harbor him before they struck.
"Axis of Evil"
A group of nations accused by the Bush administration of sponsoring terrorism and threatening to develop weapons of mass destruction, North Korea, Iraq, Iran
Invasion of Iraq
The 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States, Britain, Australia and Poland officially began on March 20, 2003. U.S. President George W. Bush stated that the objective of the invasion was "to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction, to end Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism, and to free the Iraqi people". In preparation, 100,000 U.S. troops were assembled in Kuwait by February 18. The United States supplied the majority of the invading forces. Supporters of the invasion included a coalition force of more than 40 countries, and Kurds in northern Iraq. The invasion of Iraq encountered immense popular opposition. Between January 3 and April 12, 2003, 36 million people across the globe took part in almost 3,000 protests against the Iraq war. The 2003 invasion began the Iraq War.
Election of 2004
Bush ran against John Kerry. People either passionately supported Kerry or Bush. Bush clearly won the election with 51% of the popular vote and 286 electoral votes.
John Kerry
decorated Vietnam War veteran who lost the 2004 presidential election against Bush.
Hurricane Katrina
Considered to be the one crisis of the Bush administrations second term and in is inefficiency to deal with the crisis. It destroyed 80% of New Orleans and more than 1300 people died, while the damages were $150 billion.
"crisis of the spirit"
Carter lectured country about their frivolity in an attempt to fix the economy.
Powhatan
Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan's death.
Indian War of 1622
Migrants and missionaries sparked conflict with the Indians, struggle was led by Opechancanough, who attacked some of the first English invaders in 1607, 1622, he launched a surprise attack on the English, killing 33% of the population. English retaliated by seizing their lands and declaring war that lasted for a decade. Sold captured Indians into slavery.
Maryland Colony
Founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, founded to be a place for persecuted Catholics to find refuge, a safe haven, Toleration Act.
Formed a representative assembly and demanded power to the people. Tobacco became main crop and brought in a lot of money. Most plantations were small freeholders (Land owned in its entirety, without feudal dues or landlord obligations. Freeholders have the legal right to improve, transfer, or sell their landed property. After 1650, wealthy people established estates along the rivers, purchasing labor to work their lands. Life was harsh, families were scarce due to a shortage of women, diseases ran rampant, death rates high.
John Winthrop
As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.
Thomas Hooker
Established Hartford Colony
Yeoman Society
(1630-1700)- rejected feudal practices, Had ownership of land, but didn't mean equal wealth or status because the proprietors picked out the land they got, most men had a vote in the town meeting
Restoration Colonies
land grant in North America given by King Charles II of England, as a reward to his supporters in the Stuart Restoration; marked the resumption of English colonization of the Americas after a 30-year hiatus. Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of Carolina, system of government did not work well and there were many revolts and uprisings.
Pennsylvania
in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers
Regulator Movement
It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.
FDR
President of the USA for 12 years (1933-1945). Started the New Deal, and passed a series of neutrality acts that prevented the USA from taking sides in any European wars. However, Roosevelt was convinced that the neutrality acts actually encouraged Axis aggression and wanted the acts repealed.
social-welfare liberalism
new deal activists, expanded the individuals right to governmental assistance. Beginning in the 1930's and continuing until the 1970's, increased teh scope of national legislation; created a centralized administrative system and instituted new programs such as social security and medicare, which increased the responsibility fo the national government for the welfare of every american citizen.
Hoover's response
Program reflected his faith in capitalism; a commitment to volunteer efforts; and the conviction that too much government action would undermine freedoms and initiative. Program fails. Cut taxes; unbalanced budget. Most effective plan: banks
RFC
Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Hoovers response to the Depression. Passed in January 1932, this measure loaned billions money to banks and insurance companies and RRs. and provided funds for state and local programs providing relief
Hooverville
Shantytowns on the outskirts of cities in which unemployed people of the Depression lived. The nomenclature comes from the blame many Americans placed on Hoover for the Great depression.
Bonus Army
Unemployed World War I veterans who came to Washington in the spring of 1932 to demand the immediate payment of the bonus congress had voted them in 1922. The veterans were forcibly removed from Anacostia Flats by federal troops under the command of Douglas MacArthur.
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
100 Days
The House and the Senate met for 100 days between March-June 1933. FDR's new deal which changed the way American government operates.
Bernard Baruch
He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
"Brain Trust"
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
Harold Ickes
Secretary of the interior who headed the Public Works Administration, which aimed at long-range recovery by spending over $4 billion on some 34,000 projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways
"alphabet soup"
Term used to refer to the group of New Deal programs created to provide "Relief, Reform, and Recovery" for American citizens, banks, and businesses during the Great Depression.
"bank holiday"
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
Emergency Banking Act
(FDR) 1933 , gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened., HUNDRED DAYS STARTS
fireside chats
The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the depression.
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
NIRA
1933 National Industrial Recovery Act. Recovery. Created NRA to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers.
NRA
National Recovery Administration: established and adminstered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices
FERA
Federal Emergency Relief Administration: combined cash relief to needy families with work relief
PWA
(Public Works Administration) Relief and Recovery. Harold Ikes was in charge. It was a longterm and industrial recovery and an unemployment relief.
CWA
Civil Works Adminstration: emergency work relief program, put more than four million people to work during the winter of 1933-34
CCC
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
HOLC
(Home Owners' Loan Corporation) Relief and Recovery. Helped home-owners and mortgage companies. government payed companies for the home-owners so they could keep their homes and pay off w/ lower interest and longer time.
FHA
Federal Housing Administration: expanded private home ownership among moderate-income families through federal guarantees of private mortgages, the reduction of down payments (from 30 to 10 percent), and the extension of payment form 20 to 30 years
SEC
Securities and Exchange Commission, an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors
Banking Act of 1935
created seven-member board to regulate the nation's money supply and the interest rates on loans
Liberty League
Conservatives who did not agree with Roosevelt, they wanted government to let business alone and play a less active role in the economy
NAM
National Association of Manufacturers, major federation of industrial executives.
Schechter v US
court case that shut down the NRA (National Recovery Administration); Justices unanimously held that Congress could not "delegate legislative powers" to the executive; declared congressional control of interstate commerce could not properly apply to local fowl business
Townsend Clubs
$200 a month, must be 60 years old, and spend money within 30 days; led by Francis Townsend, opposed new deal (?)
Father Charles Coughlin
A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist (?) rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR's New Deal.
Huey Long
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
Revenue Act
1935 - Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance and capital gains taxes.
Wagner Act
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Social Security
An act passed in 1935 gave government-payed pensions to American citizens over the age 65 as well as provided help for the unemployed, the disabled, and the needy.
NLRB
National labor Relations Board: (established by Wagner Act) Greatly enhanced power of American labor by overseeing collective bargaining; continues to arbitrate labor-management disputes today
AFDC
Aid to Families with Dependent Children - designed during Depression. Helped families where the main wage earner was disabled, dead, or had left the family.
liberalism
an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard
Keynesian economics
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
WPA
Works Progress Administration (1935)- Relief- Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during World War II.
Packing the Court
FDR wanted to have 6 new justices in the Supreme court, who would vote for his New Deal.
deficit spending
government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
CIO
Congress of Industrial Organizations. proposed by John L. Lewis in 1932. a federation of unions that organized workers in industrial unions in the United States and Canada from 1935 to 1955.
Frances Perkins
(born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 - May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition
Eleanor Roosevelt
FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
Mary McLeod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune was a leader in the struggle for women's and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Scottsboro Boys
Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses
STFU
Southern Tenant Farmers Union-went on strike to raise pay for tenant farmers.
BIA
Bureau of Indian Affairs. Established in 1836 to regulate the relationship between the U.S. and Native American tribes.Was not paid any mind until 1930s.
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
repatriation
A refugee or group of refugees returning to their home country, usually with the assistance of government or a non-governmental organization
NYA
National Youth Administration: established by WPA to reduce competition for jobs by supporting education and training of youth
gospel of conservation
FDR--cared first and foremost about making the land—and other natural resources, such as trees and water—better serve human needs. scientific management of the land and ecological balance. Preserving wildlife and wilderness were of secondary importance
Dust Bowl
western Kansas and Oklahoma, northern Texas, and eastern Colorado and New Mexico; long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region
John Steinbeck
American novelist who wrote "The Grapes of Wrath". (1939) A story of Dustbowl victims who travel to California to look for a better life.
Soil Conservation Service
New Deal administration established for the control and prevention of soil erosion
TVA
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
Rural Electrification Administration
1935; made electricity available at low rates to American farm families in areas that private power companies refused to service.
Grand Coulee Dam
a dam on the Columbia River in the state of Washington and produces more hydroelectricity than any other dam in the U.S
Federal Art Project
new deal program that funded large murals; division of the works progress administration that hired unemployed artists to create artwork for public buildings and sponsored art-education programs and exhibitions
Jackson Pollock
A twentieth-century American painter, famous for creating abstract paintings by dripping or pouring paint on a canvas in complex swirls and spatters.
Federal Writer's Project
hired unemployed writers to produce a series of state and city guides and to write histories of ethnic and immigrant groups, gave writers relief support, "The Slave Narratives"
Orson Welles
had a Halloween program on CBS in 1938. His dramatization of H.G. Wells' War of the World terrified and panicked listeners (some believed it to be real).
Arthur Miller
Wrote The Crucible in 1950s about Salem witch trials as a parallel to McCarthy's "witch hunt" for communists during the Red Scare
Fascism
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Mussolini
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator. He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
isolationists
People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, opposed the League of Nations
interventionalists
Those advocating direct engagement in overseas conflicts
Neutrality Act of 1935
belief that arms sales had helped bring the United States into WWI, Act made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
Passed by Congress to conduct "foreign intelligence surveillance" and created a special court (FISC) of sitting district judged designated by the Chief Justice to review applications for surveillance of foreign agents
Ethics in Government Act
Sets requirements for financial disclosure for elected public officials, and placed restrictions on former government officials' lobbying activities.
Freedom of Information Act
1966 Act allowing citizens to inspect all government records with the exception of classified military or intelligence documents, trade secrets or private personnel files.
War Powers Act
Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree
Spiro Agnew
VP under Nixon, resigned for extortion and bribery charges
Gerald Ford
the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which Ford evacuated nerely 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
Bernstein and Woodward
reporters who broke the story of Watergate
CREEP
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
E. Howard Hunt
Worked for the Nixon White House, in charge of the Watergate break in, convicted and went to jail for his involvement.
G. Gordon Liddy
Chief operative for the White House Plumbers unit that existed during several years of Nixon's Presidency. Masterminded the first break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate building in 1972. Served 4.5 years in prison.
Gerald Nye
..., Republican of North Dakota, headed a 1934-1936 Senate investigation, which concluded that banking and munition interests, whom it called "merchants of death", had tricked the US into war to protect their loans and weapon sales to England and France
DNC
..., Democratic National Committee, the office in watergate that burglars broke into (democratic headquarters)
Watergate,
..., 1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
Election of 1972
..., With the McGovern campaign in shambles and the Watergate scandal contained, Nixon won overwhelmingly (61% and 520 electoral votes). McGovern, supported only by minorities and low-income voters, carried only MA and Washington DC.
George McGovern,
..., George Stanley McGovern, Ph.D (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. McGovern was most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global ambassador on hunger.
Jesse Jackson,
..., an African-American candidate for the Democratic ticket, campaigned for a "rainbow coalition" of minorities and the disadvantaged
Paris Peace Accords,
..., 1973 peace agreement between the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Vietcong that effectively ended the Vietnam War.
"Christmas Bombing",
..., the heaviest and most destructive air raids of the entire war on North Vietnam, civilian casualties were high
"flower children",
..., Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
Tet Offensive,
..., 1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Saigon,
..., former name of Ho Chi Minh City:capital of former South Vietnam 1954-76.
Eugene McCarthy,
1968 Democratic candidate for President who ran to succeed incumbent Lyndon Baines Johnson on an anti-war platform.
Robert Kennedy,
..., He was a Democrat who ran for president in 1968 promoting civil rights and other equality based ideals. He was ultimately assassinated in 1968, leaving Nixon to take the presidency but instilling hope in many Americans.
Assassination of MLK,
..., April 4, 1968 - MLK shot by James Earl Ray on hotel balcony in Memphis --> rocked nonviolent campaign, resulted in violent riots
Appeasement,
..., Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Assassination of Robert Kennedy,
..., JFK's brother and was assassinated before being able to finish his political race, was assassinated during his bid for the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination
Sirhan Sirhan,
..., Assassinated Robert Kennedy on June 6, 1968 in Chicago after hearing pro-Israeli remarks in his victory statement after having won the California primaries.
1968 Democratic Convention,
..., Bloody riot in 1968 in Chicago to protest the Democratic National Convention because of Democratic support of the Vietnam war. Led to Republican win for the presidency.
"Yippies",
..., Youth International Party; anarchist party headed by Abbie Hoffman that opposed the Vietnam War & conformity; led riots at 1968 dem convention
Richard Daley,
..., chicago mayor who sent police in riot gear to engage protesters at the 1968 democratic convention
Hubert Humphrey,
..., LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency.
Richard Nixon,
..., he was elected to be US President after Johnson decided to not to run for US president again. He promised peace with honor in Vietnam which means withdrawing American soliders from South Vietnam
The Real Majority,
..., Nixon's phrase directed to those who did not participate in antiwar demonstrations
George Wallace,
..., racist gov. of Alabama in 1962, runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but is assasinated
the "Southern Strategy",
..., Nixon pandered to Southern Whites in order to exploit the white backlash (white people against civil rights, angry about race riots, etc.)
Chicano Moratorium Committee,
organized demonstrations against the war
marched in Los Angeles in August of 1970
Muhammad Ali,
..., United States prizefighter who won the world heavyweight championship three times (born in 1942)
Women's liberation,
..., Movement in the US primarily in the 1970's to increase woman's rights.
Women's Strike for Equality
..., Strike in August of 1970 in which tens of thousands of women held demonstrations to demand legal abortions and the right to equal employment
"Sisterhood"
..., (n) emotional and political bonding among women based on the recognition of common goals and experiences.
"sexual politics",
..., the link feminists argue exists between sexuality and power and between sexuality and race, class, and gender oppression
Title IX,
..., No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
Gloria Steinem,
..., she and several other women founded Ms. magazine in 1972. She decided to start the feminist magazine after her previous editors continually rejected her stories about the women's movement
Ms. Magazine,
..., Founded by Gloria Steinem and several other women, provided viewpoints of feminist issues and familiarized its audience with the arguments and issues of the women's movement.
National Women's Political Caucus,
..., Established by Betty Frieden, encouraged women to seek help or run for political office.
Equal Credit Opportunity Act,
..., States that a business entity may not discriminate against a credit applicant on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or marital status.
Gay Rights,
..., The movement for civil rights for homosexuals. It originated after a police raid on a gay bar in New York City in 1969, which triggered a riot and launched the grassroots reform movement seeking to end social and legal discrimination against gays. (See Stonewall Riot.)
, Stonewall Riots,
..., 1969, homosexual bar in W.Village, such bars in other cities illegal, police raid on Stonewall, group arrested but fight back, official beginning of gay rights movement
"silent majority",
..., label nixon gave to middle-class americans who supported him, obeyed the laws, and wanted "peace with honor" in vietnam, he contrasted this group with students and civil rights activists who disrupted the country with protests in the late 1960s and early 1970s
"peace with honor",
..., A phrase U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech , to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War.
, Bombing of Cambodia,
..., March, 1969 - U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral, but done because North Vietnam was itself illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned of by the American public until July, 1973.
Kent State,
..., Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
Jackson State College
..., Famous for being site of a student protest that ended with Mississippi patrolmen killing two students and wounding a dozen more, sparking nationwide student strikes.
, My Lai Massacre,
..., 1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
Willam Calley,
..., L.t. that ordered the My Lai massacre
Vietnam Veterans Against the War,
..., many veterans opposed the war and protested it
détente,
..., relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Leonmid Brezhnev,
Nixon and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev resolved tensions over Cuba and Berlin and signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)
SALT I,
..., Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
Henry Kissinger,
..., Secretary of State, supported realpolitik, appointed by Nixon as his national Secretary advisor, engaged shuttle diplomacy
China visit
..., Following a series of secret negotiations with Chinese leaders, Nixon traveled to Beijing in February 1972 to meet with Mao Zedong. The visit initiated diplomatic exchanges that ultimately led to US recognition of the Communist govt in 1979.
B-52
..., B-52H Stratofortress; Primary Function: Heavy bomber.
Presidential Commission on the Status of Women,
..., Revealed women's unequal status in the workplace. Commission under JFK. Eleanor Roosevelt was appointed as chair. Brought terms like "equal pay for equal work" and the "wage gap" into common conversation.
Equal Pay Act,
..., made it illegal for employers to pay female workers less than men for the same job
Civil Rights Act of 1964
..., This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
NOW
..., National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution,
..., allowed the president to take all necessary measures to repel armed attack or prevent further aggression
Da Nang,
..., The largest, most important army base of the ARVN in South Vietnam. Its base was plagued by Viet Cong snipers and small rocket attacks.
William Westmoreland,
..., American General who commanded American military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak from 1964 to 1968
Robert McNamara,
..., The US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned afterwards
Operation Rolling Thunder
..., bombing campaign over North Vietnam, supposed to weaken enemy's ability and will to fight
"credibility gap",
..., A lack of popular confidence in the truth of the claims or public statements made by the federal government, large corporations, politicians, etc.
SANE,
National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy--
protested atmospheric nuclear testing
SDS,
..., a student organization that organized a march on Washington D.C.; Students for a Democratic Society
Port Huron Statement,
..., Manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society, which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace.
The New Left,
..., In the 1960s, American students formed what became known as this. In 1962, a group of students gathered in Michigan to form an organization to give voice to their demands: Students for a Democratic Society. This was a student radicalism organization that was determined to build a new politics.
Free Speech Movement,
..., led by Mario Savio it protested on behalf of students rights. It spread to colleges throughought the country discussing unpopular faculty tenure decisions, dress codes, dormitory regulations, and appearances by Johnson administration officials.
Mario Savio,
..., 1964; student leader of activism on Berkely's UC campus who founded the Free Speech Movement to protest the University's ban on political activity and other grievances such as research for the military-industrial complex, compulsory ROTC, dress codes, etc.; demonstration of increasing youth involvement in politics
Selective Service,
..., law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft.
Mobilization to End the War,
1967
brought 100,000 protesters into the streets of San Francisco, while more than a quarter million followed Martin Luther King Jr. from Central Park to the United Nations in New York. 100,000 marched on pentagon
johnson's war not uniting the country anymore
YAF
Young Americans for Freedom, conservative group founded in 1960 which was a coalition between Libertarians and Conservatives--publishes the New Guard, Barry Goldwater and Nelson Rockefeller
The Sharon Statement
young conservatives helped Reagan get elected
"Four Freedoms"
Freedom of Speech, Religion, Want, from Fear; used by FDR to justify a loan for Britain, if the loan was made, the protection of these freedoms would be ensured
Pete Seeger
1930s - 60s, popularized folk music and its resurgence in 60's, friend of Woody Guthrie, important during Civil Rights movement "If you miss me at the back of the bus"
Bob Dylan
60's musician. Part of counterculture revolution through music. anti-war and anti-government
America First
Founded in 1939 after Germany's invasion of Poland, America First was an isolationist group that opposed U.S. involvement in World War II. Many prominent Americans were members, including aviator Charles Lindbergh. At its peak, America First had 800,000 members. The organization disbanded shortly after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
LSD
a powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid
Summer of Love
(1967) peak of hippie counterculture movement, came into public view -- free love, music, sexual freedom, drugs
Lend-Lease Act
..., Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
Atlantic Charter
..., product of a secret by FDR and Churchill; discussed post war aims and goals; advocated self determination of peoples
Hirohito
emperor of Japan who renounced his divinity and became a constitutional monarch after Japan surrendered at the end of World War II (1901-1989)
War Powers Act
..., Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops; had to gain congress' approval to stay longer than 90 days; designed to curtail President's power
imperial presidency
..., Term used to describe a president as an "emperor" who acts without consulting Congress or acts in secrecy to evade or deceive congress
war bonds
..., Short-term loans that individual citizens made to the government that financed two-thirds of the war's cost.
War Production Board
..., Created in 1942, this organization oversaw the production of planes, tanks, artillery pieces, and munitions needed for entering WWII
Liberty Ships
..., Ships built using mass production methods that carried goods and troops during WWII.
WAC
..., Womens Army Corps equal pay, status & rank as men (WAVES naval equivalent)
Double V campaign
..., The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."
A. Philip Randolph
..., America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
LULAC
..., The League of United Latin American Citizens was a middle-class Mexican American civil rights organization founded in Texas in 1929. It focused on ending segregation in housing, public facilities and schools.
CORE
..., an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
FEPC
..., Fair Employment Practices Committee ; investigated charges of discrimination in army or work places
Executive Order 8802
..., In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
Sleeping Car Porters
most prominent black trade union, called for a march on Washington in early 1941. Planned to bring 100,000 protesters to the nation's capital if African Americans were not given equal opportunity in war jobs. FDR issued Executive Order 8802. white leaders and institutions could be swayed by concerted African American action.
NWLB
..., National War Labor Board. Created in 1918 by Wilson. purpose was to arbitrate disputes between workers and employers
John L. Lewis
..., He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
United Mine Workers
..., A 1902 coal worker's strike called for an eight-hour work day and higher wages. Theodore Roosevelt stepped in and threatened the use of troops to settle the strike. It was the first time the government stepped in a labor dispute, but the result was improved conditions for the mine workers.
Smith-Connally Labor Act
..., The Act allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production. It also prohibited unions from making contributions in federal election. Part of group of anti-union regulations that would support the war effort. Reflected need for expanded production and industrialization. came as a result of coal miner's strike.
GI Bill
..., Provided for college or vocational training for returning WWII veterens as well as one year of unemployment compensation. Also provided for loans for returning veterens to buy homes and start businesses.
Serviceman's Readjustment Act
..., (1944) Popularly known as the GI Bill of Rights, the bill allowed returning servicemen to continue their education at government expense.
Harry Truman
..., The 33rd U.S. president, who succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Truman, who led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. After the war, Truman was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
OWI
..., The Office of War Information, which was formed during World War II. This Office had a bureau for motion pictures and served as another layer of wartime regulation of images; the OWI proposed movies such as Bataan to promote wartime propaganda. *Represents the government's efforts to control mass media, especially during wartime period.
Nisei
..., American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans.
Mao Zedong
..., This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
pachucas
..., Female equivalent of the men who wore "Zoot Suits"; Heavy makeup & black clothing;
Operation Overlord
..., the code name for the Allied invasion of Europe at Normandy on June 6, 1944; also known as D-Day
Patton
..., American general who was involved in the Normandy invasion and the Battle of the Bulge; known for his great ability in tank warfare
Operation Torch
..., Codename for allied invasion of North Africa from Novermber 1942 to September 1943
Stalingrad
..., City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943. The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd. (p. 793)
Tehran
..., site of a meeting between the Big Three; decided that a second front would attack Germany through France; implication was that Russia would be responsible for liberating Eastern Europe; Churchill was not in favor of it, but it made sense militarily
Korematsu v US
..., 1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor
Executive Order 9066
..., 2/19/42; 112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes & businesses, 600K more renounced citizenship; demonstrated fear of Japanese invasion
D-Day
..., June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
SS St. Louis
..., ship whose asylum seeking jews were not allowed to disembark in Cuba or the US and were forced to return to Germany
war Refugee Board
..., a group stablished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt that helped 20,000 Jews who might otherwise have falen in to the hands of the Nazis.
Midway
..., Important battle, broke Japanese supremacy in Pacific, Stalled Japanese offensive, 4 aircraft carriers destroyed
Douglas MacArthur
..., (1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
Chester Nimitz
..., Nimitz served as an Admiral in the Battle of Midway in 1942. He commanded the American fleet in the Pacific Ocean and learned the Japanese plans through "magic" decoding of their radio messages. With this intercepted information, Nimitz headed the Japanese off and defeated them.
Okinawa
..., The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Yalta
..., site of a meeting between the Big Three—Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill; decided that Eastern European countries could have freely elected governments, but these governments had to be friendly towards Russia; this agreement was impossible in places such as Poland; also decided that Germany would be divided into 4 occupational zones
Oppenheimer
..., United States physicist who directed the project at Los Alamos that developed the first atomic bomb (1904-1967)
George Marshall
..., United States secretary of state who formulated a program providing economic aid to European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan provided massive American economic assistance to help Europe recover from the war.
Enola Gay
..., the name of the American B-29 bomber, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, Jr., that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
molotov,
..., Stalin's foreign minister who declares that Western Democracies are enemies to the Soviet Union
Potsdam
..., the place at which the three allied leaders met to discuss the distribution of Germany and the ultimatum that they would issue to Japan demanding thier immediate surrender, When Truman, Attlee, and Stalin met; there was an extreme lack of trust, it came to light that there would be no elections in Eastern Europe, and agreements made at a previous war conference were finalized
George Kennan
..., an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
Truman Doctrine
..., First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Marshall Plan
..., A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
operation vittles
..., With help from the Royal Air force, the United States began an around-the-clock airlift of historic proportions that delivered nearly 2 million tons of supplies to West Berliners.
Warsaw Pact
..., treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
NSC
..., congress created it in 1947 to advise the president and help coordinate American military and foreign policy.
National Security Act
..., Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
NSC-68
..., National Securtiy Council memo #68 US "strive for victory" in cold war, pressed for offensive and a gross increase ($37 bil) in defense spending, determined US foreign policy for the next 20-30 yrs
Chinese Civil War
..., War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan
Korean War
..., conflict between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in which at least 2.5 million persons lost their lives. The war reached international proportions in June 1950 when North Korea, supplied and advised by the Soviet Union, invaded the South. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal participant, joined the war on the side of the South Koreans, and the People's Republic of China came to North Korea's aid. After more than a million combat casualties had been suffered on both sides, the fighting ended in July 1953 with Korea still divided into two hostile states. Negotiations in 1954 produced no further agreement, and the front line has been accepted ever since as the de facto boundary between North and South Korea.
Inchon
..., a port on the western coast of South Korea, on the Yellow Sea, near Seoul; pop. 1,818,000. It was the site of a successful invasion by U.S. troops in 1950 that enabled them to return Seoul to South Korea.
MacArthur's dismissal
In an inflammatory letter to the House minority leader, Republican Joseph J. Martin of Massachusetts, MacArthur denounced the Korean stalemate. Truman relieved MacArthur of his command over Korean War. Unpopular, but probably saved nation from war with china
cold war liberalism
..., A phrase used to describe the liberal politicians that were considered very liberal in terms of social issues and Civil Rights, but were very tough in the geopolitical arena, specifically against communism and the Soviet Union. They were very enthusiastic on domestic issues, but would be strong against communism. Notable Cold War Liberals were John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, and Harry Truman.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,
..., Shah of Iran when British and Russian troops occupied it and when oil was controlled by a British company
SEATO
..., Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand, Alliance formed to oppose Communism in Southeast Asia
John Foster Dulles
..., Eisenhower's Sec. of State; harsh anti-Communist; called for more radical measures to roll back communism where it had already spread (containment too cautious)
Adlai Stevenson
..., The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower.
Barry Goldwater
..., 1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history
new look"
..., A term used to describe the shift in foreign policy from containment to massive retaliation. This was the new way to look at foreign policy and aimed to roll back communism.
"", Nikita Krushchev
..., Leader of the Soviet union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis. He and President Kennedy signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, temporarily easing Cold War tensions.
McCarthyism
..., The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
"Hollywood Ten
..., ten witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the HUAC's investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood
Executive Order 9835
..., in March of 1947 Truman signed this which established the federal employees loyalty and security program. This program barred members of the communist party as well as fascists and anyone guilty of sympathetic association with either- from federal government. It also outlined procedures for investigation current and prospective federal employees
Alger Hiss
..., A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
National Housing Act
..., (FDR) 1934 , June 28, 1934- It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation. It was designed to stop the tide of bank foreclosures on family homes, it instead gave loans
national health insurance
..., A compulsory insurance program for all Americans that would have the government finance citizens' medical care. First proposed by President Harry S. Truman, the plan was soundly opposed by the American Medical Association.
Thomas Dewey
He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.
election of 1948
..., Truman - Democrat vs. Dewey - Republican. Truman won even though ppl thought that his integration policies would cause him to lose
"Fair Deal",
..., An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
Taft-Hartley Act
..., (HT) 1947, , The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947. When it was passed by Congress, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. The act forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party. This aspect of the act was upheld by the Supreme Court on 8th May, 1950.
Geneva Accords,
..., a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956
Ho Chi Minh
..., 1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
Ngo Dinh Diem
..., American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.
Arab League
..., Formally called the League of Arab States, includes Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq. The Arab League was formed with British encouragement, as a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Middle East. The League exists to this day, but its mission now focuses more on issues that affect the collective Arab states.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
..., Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
Suez Canal
..., a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
Eisenhower Doctrine
..., Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
TV debate
.first debate on television-- For those who heard it on radio, Nixon thought to have edge. Those who watched it on TV, gave Kennedy the edge.
Robert McNamara
Harvard Graduate who served in the air force during WWII, who worked his way up the corporate ladder at the Ford Motor Company to become the company's president. Kennedy made him his Secretary of Defense when he was elected. As Secretary of Defense, McNamara used his business knowledge to cut costs, while modernizing the army at the same time. He turned the military's focus away from the using the threat of nukes as it's biggest weapon, to achieving flexible response options.
Bay of Pigs
..., In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Fidel Castro
..., Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
beat generation
..., The generation of writers who rebelled against American Culture for its conformity, blind faith in technology, and materialism.
Jack Kerouac (On the Road)
..., He produced what may have been known the bible of the Beat Generation. His novel was an account of a cross-country automobile trip that depicted the rootless, iconoclastic lifestyle of Kerouac and his friends.
" Sheet and Tube v Sawyer
..., 1952 Truman discovered steel workers were planning a strike. He ordered Sec. of Commerce to nationalize steel mines and have the gov. run them. Truman couldn't because of the Supreme Court ruling that the president wasn't allowed to take possession of private property
long hot summers
..., A true revolution of rising expectations of African Americans. Race riots that marked a turning point in the nature of race riots. Up to that point race riots had been white-fomented as a means of racial oppression. In the 60's the riots became expressions of black discontent. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (the Kerner Commission) reported 130 separate race riots in the summer of 1967 alone — now initiated by blacks in response to police brutality, poor housing, no jobs, and exclusion from the benefits and promises of American life 8: 1941-1960
NLF
..., Southern insurrectionists of Vietnam joined this newly organized Communist National Liberation Front and many took the trek north for military training
Education Act of 70s
..., required public schools to provide education for children with physical or mental disabilities
Ralph Bunche
..., United States diplomat and United Nations official (1904-1971), frist African American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize; helped legitimize the United Nations; Medal of Freedom from Kennedy, African American diplomat who won Noble Prize for helping negotiate armistice between Israelis and Arabs.
dynamic conservatism
..., Eisenhower's philosophy of being liberal in all things human and being conservative with all things fiscal. Appealed to both Republicans and Democrats.
David Riesman
The Lonely Crowd, sociologist David Riesman mourned a lost masculinity and contrasted the independent businessmen and professionals of earlier years with the managerial class of the postwar world
Dixiecrats
..., southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party.
Civil Rights Commission
..., set up by the Civil Rights Act and was made to investigate violations of civil rights and authorized federal injunctions to protect voting rights
Miranda v Arizona
..., Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Huey Newton
..., An American political and urban activist who founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. The Black Panther Party worked for the right of self-defense for African-Americans in the United States.
Stokely Carmichael
..., a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Jimmy Carter
..., President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Washington outsiders
..., A person who has never served in Congress or in government in Washington.
George Wallace
..., racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
Roe v Wade
..., established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines; no state interference in 1st; state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd; state may regulate to protect health or unborn child in 3rd. inferred from right of privacy established in griswald v. connecticut
Gideon v Wainwright
..., a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
Economic Opportunity Act
..., law enacted in 1964 that provided funds for youth programs antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job training.
Great Society
..., President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Malcolm X
..., 1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Warren Commission
..., Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Accused killer of Kennedy, later killed by Jack Ruby
Camp David Accords
..., Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter.
Mayaguez incident
..., Forces of the Communist Khmer Rogue seized the ship Mayaguez. Marines were sent to rescue them, and although were eventually, 41 marines and aimen died, and 50 were wounded
Bakke v Board of Regents
..., US court case in which Bakke was denied to University of California Medical School twice to people less qualified based on race. Case determined that affirmative action is legal as long as filling quotas is not used.
Michael Harrington
"The Other America", chronicled "the economic underworld of American life"
Civil rights Act 1964
..., This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting rights Act 1965
..., 1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Equal Rights Amendment
Supported by the National Organization for Women, this amendment would prevent all gender-based discrimination practices. However, it never passed the ratification process.
War Powers Act
..., Passed by Congress in 1973; the president is limited in the deployment of troops overseas to a sixty-day period in peacetime (which can be extended for an extra thirty days to permit withdrawal) unless Congress explicitly gives its approval for a longer period.
Betty Friedan
..., American Feminist, writer of The Feminine Mystique, cofounded NOW, 1960s; an account of housewives' lives in which they suboordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men; bestseller was an inspiration for many women to join the women's rights movement
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
..., An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
SNCC
..., (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
Black Panthers
founded in Oakland, California, in 1966 by two college students, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. militant self-defense organization dedicated to protecting African Americans from police violence. inspired by slain Malcom X. vehemently opposed the Vietnam War and declared their affinity for Third World revolutionary movements and armed struggle. Ten Point Program for black liberation. free breakfast program for children and their testing program for sickle-cell anemia. radicalism and belief in armed self-defense resulted in violent clashes with police
Pax Americana
..., describes a period of relative peace in the Western world since the end of World War II in 1945, coinciding with the dominant military and economic position of the United States. The term was modelled on the Pax Romana of the Roman empire. During this period, no armed conflict has emerged among major Western nations themselves, and no nuclear weapons have been used, although the United States and its allies have been involved in various regional wars.
American Century
we become global policeman and take over after WWII ends
Bretton Woods System
..., Named for a conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, in 1944, this system provided the foundation for postwar economic globalization, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund; based on the promotion of free trade, stable currencies, and high levels of capital investment.
labor-management accord
raised profits and wages by passing costs on to consumers, went bust during deindustrialization and ford's presidency
consumer republic
..., economic and cultural context in which the highest social values are equated with promises of consumerism, so that consumerism is understood by citizens to be the primary avenue to achieving freedom, democracy, and equality
Veterans Administration
..., A federal agency that administers benefits provided by law for veterans of the armed forces.
, corporate sponsorship
..., An advertising appeal wherein logos and company message are publicized on a large scale, usually associated with sports.
Billy Graham
..., One of the most popular evangelical ministers of the era. Star of the first televised "crusades" for religious revival. He believed that all doubts about the literal interpretation of the bible were traps set by Satan. He supported Republicans and a large increase to money in the military.
Robert Schuller
told Americans that so long as they lived moral lives, they deserved the material blessings of modern life. postwar purveyor of religious faith cast Americans as a righteous people opposed to Communist atheism. much like billy graham.
Norman Vincent Peale
..., Reverend and founder of the Guideposts (mag) that burnt down. He believed positive thoughts would overcome obstacles.Wrote the book, "The Power of Positive Thinking" in 1952. Guideposts had a formula for real-life stories about people who "walked up to adversity and kicked it."
the Power of Positive Thinking
..., Book written by Rev. Norman Vincent Peale; stated that everyone wants to be happy and in order to be happy people must be popular. In order to be popular you must conform.
William Leavitt
..., Used Henry Ford's idea of a working line to create many houses fast. Created the first suburbs called Leavittown in Long Island New York.
Leavittown
..., A nickname for suburbs that provided safe, quiet and community-oriented living but were monotonous and influenced a commuter society.
FHA,
..., Federal Housing Administration: expanded private home ownership among moderate-income families through federal guarantees of private mortgages, the reduction of down payments (from 30 to 10 percent), and the extension of payment form 20 to 30 years
Shelley v Kraemer
..., is a United States Supreme Court decision involving the enforceability of restrictive covenants which would prohibit a person from owning or occupying property on the basis of race. It is an important civil rights
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act
..., 1956, Authorizes the building of 41,000 miles of highways in the nations biggest public works project ever. Pattern of Community development is fundamentally changed. would serve as evacuation routes in case of nuclear attack
Kerner Commission
..., nickname for the Nation Advisory Commission on civil Disorders, which blames the riots on an "explosive mixture" of poverty, slum housing, poor education, and police brutality caused by "white racism" and advised federal spending to create new jobs for urban blacks, construct additional public housing, and end de facto school segregation in the North
urban renewal
..., Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Displaced Persons Act
..., allowed 400,000 WW2 refugees to enter, opened immig. to many who wouldn't be allowed due to quota system
McCarran-Walter Act,
..., 1952 - Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, it kept limited immigration based on ethnicity and reinstated the quota system, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
Bloody Sunday
James Bevel of the SCLC called for a march from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital, Montgomery, to protest the murder of a voting-rights activist. when crossing over the Edmund Pettus Bridge, mounted state troopers attacked them with tear gas and clubs
Fannie Lou Hamer
a SNCC organizer and former sharecropper who had been evicted from her farm after registering to vote & thrown in jail for urging other African Americans to register to vote; helped organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party & challenged the legality of the segregated Democratic Party at the Democratic Convention
Bracero Program
Meant to ease WWII labor shortages, returned Mexicans to Mexico after they had provided labor
Dr. Jonas Salk
..., developer of a vaccine to prevent polio
Dr. Benjamin Spock
..., Pediatrician and author of the Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946), which emphasized children's need for the love and care of full-time mothers
Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care
..., Author = Dr. Benjamin Spock. Published 1945. Gave advice on raising kids. Legendary message to mothers = "you know more than you think you do." Later, author was a liberal of the New Left and anti-Vietnam movements.
GATT
..., a United Nations agency created by a multinational treaty to promote trade by the reduction of tariffs and import quotas
International Monetary Fund
..., An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
World Bank
..., A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Corporate Power
..., The strength or capability of corporations to influence government, the economy, and society, based on their organizational resources and size
The Lonely Crowd
..., Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were allowing society to tell them what is right and wrong.
GDP
gross domestic product
Griswold v Connecticut
..., married couple wanted to get contraceptives; struck down a Connecticut law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives; established the right of privacy through the 4th and 9th amendment
"homophiles
..., a term that became widely used when COC, a European group of friends/family of homosexuals, used it in 1945. A prevalent theory at the time was that homosexuals were too immature and self-centered to be capable of love.
Mattachine Society
..., 1950, LA: A society formed by a few ex-communist that sought to create a separate gay community and affect political policy. Struggles fractured the structure and changed the main goals of the organization
Rebel Without a Cause
..., Created in 1955 by Nicholas Ray. It was an example of the changes in conformity to ideals of the 50s. Movies like this made people fearful of the delinquency.
Miles Davis
..., 1940s&50s; black jazz musician invented bebop, rejecting white expectations for black music; challenged traditions, spontaneous, FREE; inspired challenging of authority and encouraged people to stand up for civil rights
Beats,
..., a United States youth subculture of the 1950s
Allen Ginsberg
..., He an American poet. He wrote in his Poem "Howl" about the destructive forces of conformity in the United States., United States poet of the beat generation (1926-1997)
closed society
..., a society in which you are born into a class and must permanently remain in that class
White Primary
..., the practice of keeping blacks from voting in the southern states' primaries through arbitrary use of registration requirements and intimidation
Executive Order 8802
..., In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.
UAW
..., (United Auto Workers) a labor union which represents workers in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Founded in order to represent workers in the automobile manufacturing industry
Treaty of Detroit
..., tready between GM and Reuther of the United Auto Workers. opened ways for labor managements and collective bargaining as a method to settle employment terms
John Kenneth Galbraith
..., published The Affluent Society, in which he claimed that the nations postwar prosperity was a new phenomenon.
colonias
..., housing areas built outside city limits that often lack basic services
States Rights Democratic Party
..., They split from the Democrats in defiance of Truman, "dixiecrats"
Strom Thurmond
..., He was an American politician who served as governor of South Carolina and as a United States Senator. He also ran for the presidency of the United States in 1948 under the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party banner.
"to secure these rights
..., A report by the President's Committee on Civil Rights, it was given a year after the Committee was formed, and helped pave the way for the civil rights era. It recommended that the government start an anti-lynching campaign and ensure that Blacks got to vote.
American GI Forum
..., It originally focused on veteran's issues such as payment of pensions and access to health care. But the group quickly expanded to other issues such as job discrimination, housing segregation, poll taxes, voter registration, and segregated schools.
CSO
Community Services Organization protest the poor treatment of Mexican American soldiers and veterans
address specific local injustices
broadened their scope to encompass political and economic justice for the larger community
Black Power
..., the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
24th Amendment
..., Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Selma
..., where the events of Bloody Sunday March 7th, 1965, took place. A town in central Alabama on the Alabama river. Best known for the 1965 Voting Rights Movement and its marches to Montgomery.
MFDP
..., Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. It was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only regular Democratic Party.
Robert Moses
SNCC activist who helped organize freedom summer
Freedom Summer
1964--black organizations mounted a major campaign in Mississippi, Led by the charismatic SNCC activist Robert Moses, the four major civil rights organizations (SNCC, CORE, NAACP, and SCLC) spread out across the state established freedom schools for black children and conducted a major voter registration drive. So determined was the opposition that only about twelve hundred black voters were registered that summer, at a cost of four murdered civil rights workers and thirty-seven black churches bombed or burned. the murders strengthened the resolve.
16th Street Baptist Church
..., racially motivated terrorist attack on September 15, 1963, by members of a Ku Klux Klan group in Birmingham, Alabama in the United States. The bombing of the African-American church resulted in the deaths of four girls. Although city leaders had reached a settlement in May with demonstrators and started to integrate public places, not everyone agreed with ending segregation. Other acts of violence followed the settlement. The bombing increased support for people working for civil rights.
John Lewis
..., He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
March on Washington
..., held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Medgar Evers
..., Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
Eugene "Bull" Connor
..., Birmingham police commissioner who arrested over 900 marching kids and directed the fire station to blast them with fire hoses and let police dogs loose on them.
Letter From a Birmingham Jail
..., A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
Bombingham
..., Birmingham, Alabama, that civil rights activists faced the most determined resistance. Faced violence, notably a string of racially motivated bombings.
Anniston AL
Freedom ride bus gets attacked by a mob and they slash the tires
As the bus trys to get away they follow it then light the inside of the bus on fire then stick the doors shut with iron pipes then an undercover cop made them take the pipe off then they would pull the people out and beat them -noone was arrested
Freedom Rides
..., a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
Ella Baker
..., 55 year old executive director of the SCLC; urged student leaders who had encouraged sit-ins to create their own organization (the SNCC - Student Nonviolent Cooperating Committee)
Mose Wright
..., Moses Wright's testimony in the trial of his great-nephew, Emmett Till accused killers would go down in history as one of the bravest moments of the civil rights movement
Orval Faubus
..., The Governor who opposed the integration of Little Rock Central High, Sent the National Guard to keep them out.
Southern Manifesto
..., The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party.
Harry F. Byrd
..., called on Southerners to adopt "massive resistance" against Brown v. Board of Ed ruling
Earl Warren
President Dwight Eisenhower had appointed chief justice in 1953, robust advocacy of civil rights and civil liberties
Brown v Board of Education
..., court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause; "separate but equal" has no place; reverse decision of Plessy v Feurgeson
McLauren v Oklahoma
..., 1951- dealt with the Grad program at Oklahoma University
Smith v Allwright
..., A supreme court case in 1944 that ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny membership in political parties to African Americans as a way of excluding them from voting in primaries.
Thurgood Marshall
..., American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
NAACP
..., National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
JACL
..., Japanese American Citizens League-group of Japanese-Americans who worked to get restitution for the losses they experienced during WWII internment camps
Mendez v Westminster
..., 1947 California & 1948 Delgado Texas cases : Supreme court upheld lower court rulings that declared the segregation of Mexicans unconstitutional.
Young Lords
..., Puerto Rican nationalist group, notably New York City and Chicago, modeled after Black Panthers
Watts
August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages.
Detroit Riot
..., The worst riot that broke out after the Voting Rights Act was the Detroit riot in 1967. Burning looting and skirmishes with police and National Guard members resulted in 43 deaths and over 1,000 wounded. Eventually the U.S. Army sent in tanks and soldiers armed with machine guns to get control of the situation. Nearly 4,000 fired destroyed 1,300 buildings and the damage in property loss was estimated at 250 million.
Kerner Commission
..., nickname for the Nation Advisory Commission on civil Disorders, which blames the riots on an "explosive mixture" of poverty, slum housing, poor education, and police brutality caused by "white racism" and advised federal spending to create new jobs for urban blacks, construct additional public housing, and end de facto school segregation in the North
King Assassination
..., April 4, 1968 While supporting sanitation workers strike which had been marred by violence in Memphis, King was shot by James Earl Ray, Riots result in 125 cities
Cesar Chavez
..., Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions
Delores Huerta
1930-?
born in NM and raised in Stockton, Mexican American leader who formed a Union for migrant farm workers
United Farm Workers
..., a union committed to the goal of better pay and working conditions for migrant farm workers - people who move seasonally from farm to farm for work
MAPA
mobilized support for John F. Kennedy and worked successfully with other organizations to elect Mexican American candidates such as Edward Roybal of California and Henry González of Texas to Congress
La Raza Unida
..., The United People Party. stated by Jose Angel Gutierrez, political movement, the party ran Latino candidates and won many positions in city government offices
National Indian Youth Council
NIYC, in 1961, a more militant generation of Native Americans expressed growing discontent with the government and with the older Indian leadership by forming this council.
American Indian Movement
AIM, led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre
Kennedy Assassination
..., (JFK) , Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas 1963, LBJ took the oath of office
Jack Ruby
killed lee harvey oswald, who killed kennedy
LBJ
..., Vise President to JFK,1963-1969, deomcrat, passed civil rights act of 64, included a program called Great Society, presidency based on vietnam war, passed Gulf of Tonkin and said "to take any measures nessesary",decided to escalate American involvement in Vietnam, proved to be extremely unpopular
Great Society
..., President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Civil Rights Act
..., LBJ passed this in 1964. Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
War on Poverty
..., Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor, including the Job Corps and Head Start.
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
..., This act was central to Johnson's Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty. Implemented by the since disbanded Office of Economic Opportunity, the Act included several social programs to promote the health, education, and general welfare of the poor. Although most of the initiatives in the Act have since been modified, weakened, or altogether rolled back, its remaining programs include Head Start, and Job Corps.
Job Corps
..., programs created from the Economic Opportunity Act that trained young people in marketable skills
Upward Bound
..., A federally funded educational program designed to provide certain categories of high school students the opportunity to atend college.
VISTA
..., Volunteers in Service to America which sent volunteers to help people in poor communties
Community Action Program
..., encouraged communities to get active in creating charities and wealth sharing programs
1964 Election
..., LBJ ran against Barry Goldwater, LBJ won ina landslide victory
Ronald Reagan
..., first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Hubert Humphrey
..., liberal senator from Minnesota and Lyndon Johnson's vice president who tried to united the party after the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago; he narrowly lost the presidency to Richard Nixon that year.
Elementary and Secondary Education act
..., The Act is an extensive statute which funds primary and secondary education. This allowed the government to help those who cannot achieve a good education.
Higher Education Act
..., No institution of higher learning that receives federal funding may discriminate on the basis of gender. Schools forced to increase funding of women's programs, especially sports programs. (For this reason, it made scholarships possible for students entering college.) It is seen as one of the great successes of LBJ (1965)
Medicare
elderly
Medicaid
poor
HUD
..., Cabinet department that administers programs dealing with better housing and urban renewal
BART
..., San Francisco's Bay Area Rapid Transit signaled the begining of mass transit construction in the U.S (pg 91)
Immigration Act of 1965
..., Abolished the national-origins quotas and providing for the admission each year of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere (LBJ)
National Endowment for the Arts
..., Federally funded program that offers support and funding for projects that exhibit artistic excellence; founded in 1965
National Endowment for the Humanities
..., Federally funded program supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities; founded in 1965 as part of Johnson's Great Society program
Youngstown
president cant make policy enforced by law- need C approval
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