Motion from one point to another which does not involve repeatedly passing the same point in space
An increase in temp spreads out the distribution and the mean speed shifts upward
The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.
Liquid to Gas, the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid
a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound, that has definite chemical and physical properties
a substance consisting of two or more substances mixed together (not in fixed proportions and not with chemical bonding)
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0)
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose product is constant
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases, P1V1=P2V2
the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases, V1/T1=V2/T2
Kinetic Theory of Gasses
The model states that the movement of molecules in a gas is random and that no energy is lost when they collide with each other or their surroundings.
encounters between gas particles in which kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another
The number of waves that have passed through a specific point in a certain amount of time units.
arrangement of electromagnetic radiation--including radio waves, visible light from the Sun, gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, and microwaves--according to their wavelengths
process of measuring the amplitude or energy of each sample at that point in the waveform-also increases dynamic range
Line Emission Spectra
when light from excited atoms of an element is passed through a prism, distinct colored lines are produced which can be used to identify the element.
the ways in which electrons are arranged in various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
The idea that we do know no anything for certain and all we know is possibilities, probabilities, and tendencies. Put forth by German physicist Heisenberg.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
The Process of when and atom takes in Light and converts it into energy. Opposite of Reflection
J.J Thomson's Model
Thomson's model described the atom as a positively charged sphere, in which negatively charged particles were scattered. (Like raisins in bread pudding.)
described atoms as the smallest particle of matter ; indivisible; developed the Atomic Theory
atoms possitively charged particles were contained in the nucleus, the negatively charged electrons were scattered outside the nucleus around the edge
model of the atom in which electrons move rapidly around the nucleus in paths called orbits
Quantum Mechanical Model
determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations around the nucleus
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
a 3-dimensional geometric arrangement of the atoms or molecules or ions composing a crystal
States that atoms lose, gain or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons
electric force between charged objects depends on the distance between the objects and the magnitude of the charges.
The more electrons there are to hold on to, the more the strength of the nucleus gets diffused
the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
a structural formula in which electrons are represented by dots; dot pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent pairs in covalent bonds.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model, which is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of electrons around the central atom
electron cloud, the area of possibilities in which the electrons could be in a general region.
non-polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
there are equal forces on each side that cancel each other out, no net dipole because they fully cancel
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
forces of attraction between molecules. The following types are: London Dispersion Forces, Dipole-Dipole Forces, and Hydrogen Bonds
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom
London Dispersion Forces
the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles
An atom or molecule in which the spatial center of positive charge is momentarily different from the center of negative charge.
make (a liquid) less concentrated; reduce in strength; Ex. dilute the influence of the president
the attraction between ions and water in the solution; the change in energy when gaseous ions dissolve in water
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
result of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration
an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
zig zag format of how many bonds are in the molecule
double lines for double bonds etc. and draw in the bond angles for each one
the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
the chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons