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Communicative language teaching methodologies (eclectic); an approach to language teaching; reflects a certain model or research paradigm, or a theory; based on the theory that the primary function of language use is communication; primary goal for learners to develop communicative competence/ability; make use of real-life situations that necessitate communication; macro-strategies or methodological principles
19th century; lists of vocab & rule explanations; translation activities; little oral proficiency resulted; students expected to go abroad to become fluent
the Natural Method
FL taught without translation or L1, meaning conveyed through demo & action; strongly promoted spontaneous use of TL
Richards & Rodgers (2001) 8 principles of the Direct Method
(1) instruction in TL; (2) everyday vocab & sentences; (3) oral skills built with teacher-student Q-A exchanges; (4) grammar taught inductively; (5) new points intro'd orally; (6) concrete vocab demonstrated; abstract vocab by association of ideas; (7) speech & listening comprehension taught; (8) correct pronunciation & grammar emphasized
criticism of the Direct Method
strict requirements of principles; need for native or near-native fluency speakers
the Audiolingual Method
replaced grammar-translation in the 1950s & 60s; based in behaviorism & structuralism; primary emphasis on spoken language; aka "Aural-oral" Method; FLL mechanical process of habit formation and automatization; mimic and memorize; substitution, variation, translation,and response drills; errors must be avoided; native speaker was perfect model
problems with Audiolingual Method
teacher as drillmaster; learners disengaged from meaningful language w/limited opportunities to use language creatively w/peers; overcorrection of errors; high anxiety levels
Chomsky's arguments against the Audiolingual Method
language learning involves creative processes; language as rule-governed creativity; innate basic rule system (Universal Grammar); exposure to language children naturally learn through discoveral determined by internal processes, not external influences
1970s by Van Ek & Wilkins; new organization around functions (communicative speech acts like asking) & notions (concepts like time & location); laid groundwork for textbook writers to organize materials in terms of communicative situations and concrete communicative tasks
Whose research showed that learners develop an underlying language system that develops in a sequence that does not always reflect the sequence of what was taught in a curriculum
Dulay & Burt, 1973
Whose work showed that learners develop language skills according to their own internal syllabus
the Natural Approach
The Natural Approach was developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen, starting in 1977; from Krashen's hypotheses
the Silent Way
language teaching method created by Caleb Gattegno that makes extensive use of silence as a teaching technique.
The communicative method that was designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personally and motivation as that typically placed on intellect.
the ability to interpret and enact appropriate social behaviors; requires active involvement of the learner in the production of TL (Canale & Swain; Celce-Murcia; Hymes)
abilty to match linguistic form with the speaker's intent (surrounds communicative competence)
spawned from CLT; put forward a set of guideline (ACTFL); measure competence in functional terms
spawned from CLT; further focused descriptions of what students should know and be able to do after completing level or curriculum to meet national standards P-16
the qualities required to justify the label "CLT"
activities that require frequent interaction among learners or with other interlocutors to exchange info and solve problems; use of authentic (non-pedagogic) text and communication activities link to "real-world" contexts, often emphasizing links across written and spoken modes and channels; approaches that are learner-centered, taking into account background, needs, goals, allow creativity and a role in instructional decisions
Doughty and Long (2003) 8 methodological principles of CLT
(1) Use tasks as an organizational principle; (2) Promote learning by doing; (3) Input needs to be rich; (4) Input needs to be meaningful, comprehensible, and elaborated; (5) Promote cooperative and collaborative learning; (6) Focus on form; (7) Provide error corrective feedback; (8) Recognize and respect affective factors of learning
TBI; syllabus design that places the development of communicative skills first and only uses grammar to support the development of those skills
Proponents of TBI
Breen (1987); Long (1985, 1989); Nunan (1989); Prabhu (1987); Pica, Kanagy, and Falodun (1993); Norris et al. (1998)
design features of tasks
focus on meaning; real-world tasks v authentic task behavior; achieving a goal; developing a product; single skill or combo of skills
challenges of TBI
engaging students in variety of tasks necessary to promote acquisition; students have many pedagogical needs which often necessitate a different approach to teaching; task choice, task difficulty and sequencing; task designs require careful adaptations
designed to emphasize those skills that learners need to have so they can function in the real world; such tasks simulate authentic task behavior and focus on end product
intended to act as a bridge between the classroom and the real world in that they serve to prepare students for real-life language usage; aka preparation or assimilation tasks; designed to promote acquisition by taking into account teacher's goal, students' developmental stage and skill level, and social contexts of the learning environment
texts, photographs, videos, and resources that were not specifically prepared for learning
strategies to deal with resistance to and frustration with use of TL in class
(1) do not constantly switch back and forth; (2) set a good example for the students; (3) provide clear guidelines; (4) discuss the rationale for using the TL in the classroom early in the term
a vital communication strategy wherein learners use a word in their L1 when they do not know it in the TL
strategy named by Doughty and Long (2003) to refer to the myriad ways native speakers modify discourse to make it comprehensible to non-native speakers; confirmation checks, comprehension checks, teacher's accessibility to students' questions, non-linguistic input of body language, modified language through: repetition, slower speech rate, enhanced enunciation, simplified language, use of cognates, limited use of English
Hatch (1983) 5 categories of simplified input
(1) rate of speech; (2) vocabulary; (3) syntax; (4) discourse; (5) speech setting
cooperative or collaborative learning
strong facilitator of learning; classrooms organized into small teams to collaborate on language learning tasks
focus on formS
approach represents a traditional approach to teaching grammar within contexts and through communicative tasks
teacher repeats in correct way; most widespread and least effective strategy (Lyster and Ranta, 1997)
may be the most decisive factor in predicting success in acquisition; learner's ability to make a "comparison between their internal representation of a rule and the information about the rule in the input they encounter" (Chaudron 1988)
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