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CLT C1 notes for quiz


Communicative language teaching methodologies (eclectic); an approach to language teaching; reflects a certain model or research paradigm, or a theory; based on the theory that the primary function of language use is communication; primary goal for learners to develop communicative competence/ability; make use of real-life situations that necessitate communication; macro-strategies or methodological principles

grammar-translation method

19th century; lists of vocab & rule explanations; translation activities; little oral proficiency resulted; students expected to go abroad to become fluent

the Direct Method

aka the Berlitz Method, used in Berlitz schools

the Natural Method

FL taught without translation or L1, meaning conveyed through demo & action; strongly promoted spontaneous use of TL

Richards & Rodgers (2001) 8 principles of the Direct Method

(1) instruction in TL; (2) everyday vocab & sentences; (3) oral skills built with teacher-student Q-A exchanges; (4) grammar taught inductively; (5) new points intro'd orally; (6) concrete vocab demonstrated; abstract vocab by association of ideas; (7) speech & listening comprehension taught; (8) correct pronunciation & grammar emphasized

criticism of the Direct Method

strict requirements of principles; need for native or near-native fluency speakers

the Audiolingual Method

replaced grammar-translation in the 1950s & 60s; based in behaviorism & structuralism; primary emphasis on spoken language; aka "Aural-oral" Method; FLL mechanical process of habit formation and automatization; mimic and memorize; substitution, variation, translation,and response drills; errors must be avoided; native speaker was perfect model

problems with Audiolingual Method

teacher as drillmaster; learners disengaged from meaningful language w/limited opportunities to use language creatively w/peers; overcorrection of errors; high anxiety levels

Chomsky's arguments against the Audiolingual Method

language learning involves creative processes; language as rule-governed creativity; innate basic rule system (Universal Grammar); exposure to language children naturally learn through discoveral determined by internal processes, not external influences

Firth, Halliday, Hymes, Austin

the primary purpose of language is to communicate

functional-notional syllabus

1970s by Van Ek & Wilkins; new organization around functions (communicative speech acts like asking) & notions (concepts like time & location); laid groundwork for textbook writers to organize materials in terms of communicative situations and concrete communicative tasks

Whose research showed that learners move through different stages of development

Selkiner, 1972

Whose research showed that learners develop an underlying language system that develops in a sequence that does not always reflect the sequence of what was taught in a curriculum

Dulay & Burt, 1973

Whose work showed that learners develop language skills according to their own internal syllabus

Pienemann, 1989


total physical repsonse; say a single action word then perform that action

the Natural Approach

The Natural Approach was developed by Tracy Terrell and Stephen Krashen, starting in 1977; from Krashen's hypotheses

the Silent Way

language teaching method created by Caleb Gattegno that makes extensive use of silence as a teaching technique.


The communicative method that was designed to place as much language teaching emphasis on learner personally and motivation as that typically placed on intellect.

communicative competence

the ability to interpret and enact appropriate social behaviors; requires active involvement of the learner in the production of TL (Canale & Swain; Celce-Murcia; Hymes)

linguistic competence

the knowledge of grammar and vocab

sociolinguistic competence

the ability to say the appropriate thing in a certain social situation

discourse competence

the ability to participate fully in a conversation consistently

strategic competence

the ability to repair problems caused by communication breakdowns

actional competence

abilty to match linguistic form with the speaker's intent (surrounds communicative competence)

proficiency-based movement

spawned from CLT; put forward a set of guideline (ACTFL); measure competence in functional terms

standard-based movement

spawned from CLT; further focused descriptions of what students should know and be able to do after completing level or curriculum to meet national standards P-16

the qualities required to justify the label "CLT"

activities that require frequent interaction among learners or with other interlocutors to exchange info and solve problems; use of authentic (non-pedagogic) text and communication activities link to "real-world" contexts, often emphasizing links across written and spoken modes and channels; approaches that are learner-centered, taking into account background, needs, goals, allow creativity and a role in instructional decisions

Doughty and Long (2003) 8 methodological principles of CLT

(1) Use tasks as an organizational principle; (2) Promote learning by doing; (3) Input needs to be rich; (4) Input needs to be meaningful, comprehensible, and elaborated; (5) Promote cooperative and collaborative learning; (6) Focus on form; (7) Provide error corrective feedback; (8) Recognize and respect affective factors of learning

task-based instruction

TBI; syllabus design that places the development of communicative skills first and only uses grammar to support the development of those skills

Proponents of TBI

Breen (1987); Long (1985, 1989); Nunan (1989); Prabhu (1987); Pica, Kanagy, and Falodun (1993); Norris et al. (1998)

design features of tasks

focus on meaning; real-world tasks v authentic task behavior; achieving a goal; developing a product; single skill or combo of skills

challenges of TBI

engaging students in variety of tasks necessary to promote acquisition; students have many pedagogical needs which often necessitate a different approach to teaching; task choice, task difficulty and sequencing; task designs require careful adaptations

real-world tasks

designed to emphasize those skills that learners need to have so they can function in the real world; such tasks simulate authentic task behavior and focus on end product

pedagogical tasks

intended to act as a bridge between the classroom and the real world in that they serve to prepare students for real-life language usage; aka preparation or assimilation tasks; designed to promote acquisition by taking into account teacher's goal, students' developmental stage and skill level, and social contexts of the learning environment

authentic materials

texts, photographs, videos, and resources that were not specifically prepared for learning

strategies to deal with resistance to and frustration with use of TL in class

(1) do not constantly switch back and forth; (2) set a good example for the students; (3) provide clear guidelines; (4) discuss the rationale for using the TL in the classroom early in the term

code switching

a vital communication strategy wherein learners use a word in their L1 when they do not know it in the TL

elaborating input

strategy named by Doughty and Long (2003) to refer to the myriad ways native speakers modify discourse to make it comprehensible to non-native speakers; confirmation checks, comprehension checks, teacher's accessibility to students' questions, non-linguistic input of body language, modified language through: repetition, slower speech rate, enhanced enunciation, simplified language, use of cognates, limited use of English

Hatch (1983) 5 categories of simplified input

(1) rate of speech; (2) vocabulary; (3) syntax; (4) discourse; (5) speech setting

cooperative or collaborative learning

strong facilitator of learning; classrooms organized into small teams to collaborate on language learning tasks

Vygotsky 1978

sociocultural interaction/learning

focus on formS

approach represents a traditional approach to teaching grammar within contexts and through communicative tasks

positive feedback

confirms correctness of a student's response

negative feedback

error correction


teacher repeats in correct way; most widespread and least effective strategy (Lyster and Ranta, 1997)

learner readiness

may be the most decisive factor in predicting success in acquisition; learner's ability to make a "comparison between their internal representation of a rule and the information about the rule in the input they encounter" (Chaudron 1988)

challenges of CLT

choice of content, context, specific skill area, particular learning tasks that determine a curriculum

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