Create an account
substance that when introduced into body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens inlude toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.
found in the blood and lymph and are involved in the IMMUNE capability of the body; includes B-cell and T-cell lymphocytes
responsible for antibody-mediated immunity/HUMORAL IMMUNITY (meaning immunity occurring in the plasma)
Mature in the bone marrow
"recognize/memorize" specific germs, either bacteria/viruses, and in the presence of those specific germs, they reproduce rapidly
Mature into plasma cells and responsible for producing ANTIBODIES
They remember: some things are hard to forget, antibodies are formed, and quick response after the initial invasion
Immature cells start in spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow
Thymus gland matures them to T-cell lymphocytes
Important for control to help fight virus, bacterial, fungal and rejection of transplanted tissue
T-cells mediated immunity
involve cell-mediated immunity (specific responses); the 3 types are HELPER T CELLS, SUPPRESSOR T CELLS, AND CYTOTOXIC
aka CD4; if it's low the immune system will not work
switch on the immune/allergic system
recognize a virus/transplanted tissue
Helper T cells
Cells kill tumor, viral, foreign cells (kill cells of transplanted organs)
vital to the control of viral and bacterial infections
Cytotoxic T cells
groups of lymphocytes that kill many diverse types of cancer and virus-infected cells (non-specific responses)
Natural killer cells
B cells able to produce many different antibodies
The "effectiveness of the immune system" depends on whether the body is able to distinguish between its own body tissues and foreign tissue
Humans need humoral and cell-mediated immunity to stay healthy
Each type has unique properties and reacts against particular antigens
aka Immunoglobulin Ig
large molecules of proteins produced in reaction to antigens (foreign substance or toxin)
most abundant, antibodies are found in all body fluids and high during infection, lower in cancer
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)
everybody is different
rare for 1 person to have the same HLA
Identical twins have same HLA
Organ transplant-rejection lower if HLA closely matched
Done for organ transplant
Factors that affect immunity
Gender (women-autoimmune disorders and men-immunosuppressant)
Poor nutrition/nutritional imbalances
Alcohol use/abuse, smoking
Limited options for health care
Tests for Immune System Status
Measurement of immunoglobulin levels
Antibody titer testing
Skin testing (TB-PPD)
Results of TB-PPD
postive if person has been exposed, but does not mean active TB
Assessed in 48 hrs
Signs of redness and induration (area of hardened raised tissure of 10 mm-considered postive)
Person to develop active immunity against a specific organism.
Given by injection, inhalation, or as an oral suspension
Types of vaccines
Recombinant genetic engineering
Live, attenuated vaccines
Contain inactivated pathogens-eg. flu vaccine-elicits weak immune response-developed according to strain that is expected to predominate
S/S of anaplylactic shock
nasal congestion, palpitations, erythema, pruritus, a wet-sounding nonproductive cough, and slurred speech
Immediate medical intervention:epinephrine
use a 1:1000 conc. for severe urticaria.
administer subq in abdominal fat/upper arm
Also administered IM in the anterolateral portion of the thigh, through clothes if necessary with an EpiPen
briskly massage injection site to speed up drug reaction
Might have to be administered every 10-15 mins.
Anaphylaxis nursing care
elevate feet and keep warm
administer 02 if needed
Give antihistamines-dephenhydramine (Bendryl) and corticosteroids (prednisone)
instruct client to wear a medical alert bracelet/necklace identifying the allergy
instruct client to keep EpiPen with them at all times and to avoid allergan
major epidemic and 1/4 of African nations infected.
destroys immune system
ATTACK T CELLS (CD4)
window period may take up to 2 yrs.
Within 6-12 weeks of infection there are usually detectable levels of antibodies against the virus in the blood
Common Indicator Diseases
Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia-most common of the indicator diseases
Kaposi's Sarcoma-keeps reoccuring
Oral cnadidiasis (superinfection)
Severe watery diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, fever, and weakness caused by drinking municipal water
ELISA, Western blot test, PCR
Possible to test positive after 2 weeks/10 full yrs for full AIDS
May live several yrs w/o developing AIDS
Treatmetn started if experiencing severe symptoms
invade the T-helper cells and decreases the number of cells
This decreases the immune system
determines the ability of cells to be compatible
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type identified
CBC with diff
blood type and cross-matching
MLC immune similarity permits successful transplant
usually occurs 24 hrs after transplant
graft versus host disease-1/2 of all BMT develop-to prevent anti-rejection drugs
TAKE IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS for the rest of their life.
Care of clients with organ transplants
Monitor for signs of tissue rejection, elevated lab values (BUN, liver, cardiac enzymes, bilirubin levels), decreasing BP, increasing HR, or loss of function of the transplanted organ
Monitor for skin changes for several months, reporting signs of rashes, hives/peeling skin
Occur when the body's own cells are not recognized properly and are perceived as foreigh. The body then attacks the cells.
Prevalent in females
Increases with age
Familial connection: RA, SLE, MG, Scleroderma
Dx for autoimmune disorders
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) for SLE; ordered when someone shows similar S/S to SLE/another autoimmune disorder.
Lupus erythematosus (LE) for SLE
RF present in 80% of RA
grave muscle weakness
weakness increases with activity, improves with rest
average life span
Myasthenia gravis manifestations
first muscles affected are eyes, eyelid movement, facial expression, slurred speech and swallowing
Other symptoms: unstable gait, weakness in arms, hands, fingers, legs, and neck; facial expression and SOB
difficult cause weakness symptom of may disorders
TENSILON-IV test if improvement, then MG is dx
electromyography-evaluating electrical activity of muscles
What is the function of the thymus and is its removal harmful?
plays a major role in the development of the body's immune system. Function appears virtually complete at birth. Removal of the thymus in the tx of MG does not affect the immune system thereafter.
abnormal growth of connective tissue that supports the skin and internal organs. Too much collagen
Calcinosis-calcium deposits in CT
Telangiectasis-spider like spots
Nursing care of autoimmune disorders
Stress reduction, nutrition, and medication
Rest during the day
Assess for fatigue, muscle pain and weakness
Assess stress level and coping strategies
Teach client and family about the disease process
The 4 classes of hypersensitivity
Level I-immediate response
Level II-cytotoxic hypersensitivity
Level III-immune hypersensitivity
Level IV-delayed hypersensitivity
delayed hypersensiticity response that is caused by chemicals or plants, fungi, and mycobacteria
epinephrine-immediately if severe reaction
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together