Test 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (73)
Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
The study of how people use computers and how computers can be made, designed, and programmed to be better used by people; the study of the interaction between people & technology.
Human Factors (HF)
The design, implementation, and evaluation of how people interact with things.
Interaction Design (ID)
An interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on how people interact with technology.
User-centered Design (UCD) or Human-centered Design (HCD)
Human-Centered Design is an iterative approach to design that accommodates human needs, capabilities, and behavior first. HCD forestalls defining a specification as long as possible, so that the iterative cycle of idea testing and evaluation can achieve the best-possible result.
Golden rule of Interaction Design (and its corollary)
The Golden Rule of Interaction design is UNDERSTAND YOUR USERS.
Its corollary is YOU ARE NOT A USER
a conversation, a two-way flow of information between two things, such as two people, two computers, or between a person and a computer.
refers to properties we design into a thing that enable users to determine how they can use the thing: what actions are possible, and where and how to perform them. Discoverability is conceptually related to understanding, in that without understanding, dicoverability has no context.
refers to a person's basic comprehension of what a thing is, what the thing "means". Understanding is conceptually related to discoverability, in that it must happen in order to provide the context for discoverability
Norman: The relationship between a thing and a user that indicates the potential use of the thing to the user.
Kimmer: A property of a thing that indicates the potential use of the thing to the user.
"affords" (provides for) a user action.
An affordance made of pixels (or some other medium in the future). Norman would call them signifiers.
An affordance that doesn't lead to a resulting action.
part of an affordance that signals to the user that they can perform an action. Norman calls them the signalling components of affordances.
a relationship between two things. For this course, a mapping is the relationship between an affordance and a feature or capability of a thing
The information that technology gives in response to user action. Feedback is classified by the human sense required, including but not limited to visual, audible, and haptic.
a highly-simplified mental picture of how something works. Conceptual models include design models, user model, and system image.
a mental picture formed by a person about a thing as a result of examination of the thing, reading about the thing, talking with others about the thing, or by having encountered similar things in the past.
the designer's mental picture of how a thing can be used.
the user begins to blame themselves for the mistakes.
user receiving feedback
first step in the execution and evaluation cycle. What do i want to accomplish?
little subgoals in a larger goal. You rarely think about each individual action you do in an interaction.
7 stages of action
1. Forming the goal
2. Forming the intention
3. Specifying an action
4. Executing the action
5. Perceiving the state of the world
6. Interpreting the state of the world
7. Evaluating the outcome
gulf of execution
Where people try to figure out how something operates
gulf of evaluation
Where they try to figure out what happened
The extra information that lets a user predict the effect or result of an action.
Providing physical and logical semantic and cultural constraint guides. actions and eases interpretation
Most basic level of processing
Home of learned skills triggered by situations that match the appropriate actions
Home of conscious cognition. Where deep understanding develops. Where reasoning and conscious decision making take place
Knowledge of includes the knowledge of facts and rules!
Knowledge How! Taught best by demonstration and best learned through practice
knowledge in the world or external memory
knowledge in the human memory system. pg 76-79
long term memory
A memory of the past.
recent memories associated with the senses (sight, touch, hear, ect...)
the process of selecting what to concentrate on. Memory-sensory memory- short term- working memory.
(touch) ex: if we grab something twice in succession, we know how much to grip it.
7 chunks of information, easily remembered in these "chunks".
picking something from a list
remembering something without clues
relationship between controls and objects to be controlled is obvious.
constraint (4 kinds)
Physical: limit what parts go together. Physical limitations
Cultural: cultural behavior that provide a general rule and information necessary for interpreting situations.
Semantic: rely upon the meaning of the situation to control the set of possible actions.
Logical: a logical relationship between the spatial or functional layout of components and the things that they affect or are affected by.
short term or working memory
Retains the most recent experiences or material that is currently being thought about.
solving a problem with given constraints
the users you are designing for
others who have a vested interest in the design or product
1.)Strategy: what are the user's goals or what are the goes for our product or website.
2.)Scope: what is needed to allow these goals to happen.
3.)Structure: the conceptual model.
4.)Skeleton: how will the user interact with a single page.
5.)Surface: what it will actually look like.
IA (Information Architecture)
Content of the entire site, organization.
skeleton of the site. The bare bones of what will be where.
representation of what the end product of a design would look or act like
exist on paper
interactive on the computer
flow or task flow
a rundown of the user tasks into a flow from one to the next
An element of a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow the single interaction or visual information
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
For each action in a task, tell a story asking: will the user be trying to produce the effect the action has? Will the user see the control for the action? Will the user recognize the control produces the desired effect? After the action is taken, will the user understand the feedback and be able to proceed?
A way of looking for usability problems. Simply looking at the user interface and passing judgment - coming up with an opinion about what is good/bad about the interface.
an approach to software testing where users are directed to complete tasks using the software. In alpha testing, a member of the development team assumes the role of a user; in beta testing, a real user is directed to complete specific tasks.
where an HCI or usability expert makes an assessment of the application
User voices thoughts about process as they go. It lets you evaluate their process
Both user and evaluator can ask ech other questions throughout
observational method where user reacts on action after an event. used to fill in intention. Useful to identify reasons for actions and alternatives considered. (use when think aloud is not possible)
menu requiring user to make one or more selections
only two choices(T/F, yes/no)
single item selection from numerous choices
multiple item selection from numerous choices
pull down menu
sub-menus appearing from selected top menus
pop up menu
menu appearing separate of background when a trigger button has been selected
Offers clickable actions that can apply to a displayed object
Replacement for menus & tool bars by one-inch tabs grouping commands by task
offers choice of numerical values by sliding a pointer to desired value choice.(dates, numbers)
two dimensional menu
Large menus displaying hierarchical placement of choices without multiple pulls or pop-ups (craigslist)
5 grouping methods/information organization
ordered chronologically or sequentially
in order of importance
in order of frequency