15 terms

Chest X-ray

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How does a pericardial effusion manifest on CXR?
Globular heart
How does a left atrial dilatation manifest on CXR?
- prominent left atrial appendage
- straightening/bulging of upper left heart border
- double atrial shadow to the right of the sternum
- splaying of carina
How does a left ventricular enlargement manifest on CXR?
- increase cardiothoracic ratio
- smooth elongation & increased convexity of left heart border
How does a right atrial enlargement manifest on CXR?
- right border project into right lower lung field
How does a right ventricular enlargement manifest on CXR?
- increase cardiothoracic ratio
- upward displacement of apex
How does an ascending aortic dilatation manifest on CXR?
prominence of aortic shadow to the right of the mediastinum between right atrium and SVC
How does dissection of ascending aorta manifest on CXR?
mediastinal widening
How does pulmonary artery enlargement manifest on CXR?
prominent bulge on left border of mediastinum below aortic knuckle
What is pulmonary plethora and what does it look like on CXR?
- results from left-to-right shunts
- general increase in vascularity of lung fields
- increase in size of hilar vessels
What is pulmonary oligaemia and what does it look like on CXR?
- paucity of vascular markings & reduction in width of arteries
- due to reduced pulmonary blood flow (e.g. PE, severe pulmonary stenosis, Fallot's tetralogy)
What does pulmonary hypertension look like on CXR?
- features of PE, chronic lung disease, chronic left heart disease
- pulmonary arteries are prominent and close to hila but reduced size in peripheral lung fields (symmetrical)
What does isolated dilatation of upper zone vessels indicate?
mild pulmonary capillary HTN
How does interstitial oedema manifest on CXR?
- fluid collections in interlobar fissures, interlobular septa (Kerley B lines) and pleural spaces
- indistinct hilar regions
- hazy lung fields
How does alveolar oedema manifest on CXR?
- areas of consolidation
- mottling of lung fields
- pleural effusions
How does COPD manifest on CXR?
- lung hyperinflation (flattened hemidiaphragms, >6 anterior ribs)
- large central pulmonary arteries
- reduced peripheral vascular markings
- bullae
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