43 terms

Jazz Quiz 1

STUDY
PLAY
a. A feeling
b. Also a form of music
c. 12 bars, 3 sections of 4 bars each
d. Text is a statement, statement, commentary pattern
Blues
a. The middle section of an A A B A tune. Usually has a different key area. It leads back into the A section. Also part of ta stringed instrument that holds up the strings.
Bridge
a. One pass through the form of the tune. Similar to going around the board in monopoly. Most people play too many
Chorus
a. A spot in the music where the band stops playing in order to let the soloist get a good start.
Solo Break
a. Alternating four (X) bar phrases between the rest of the band and the drummer. Functions as a type of drum solo.
Trading fours
a. A colloquial expression meaning an added or "tagged" on ending. A tag indicated to the listeners and the other musicians that the song is ending.
Tag ending
a. A short (usually 2 bars) repeated over and over. It's a type of loop.
Vamp
a. An introductory section of a popular song or ballad, as distinguished from the chorus. IT may have an irregular number of bars. See CHORUS. This was a standard compositional device in early Broadway musicals.
Verse
b. Licensing agency.
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers
a. An informal gathering of musicians playing on their own time and improvising on one or two numbers. After hours. This is now a rare occurrence.
Jam session
A musician in a band, different from the leader. Makes less money than the leader.
Sideman
a. Free in tempo
b. No steady tempo
Rubato
A temporary shifting or displacement of a regular metrical accent; emphasis on a weak or unaccented note so as to displace the regular meter
Syncopation
a. A key area
b. Certain chords have more strength and pull than others, setting up a hierarchy or chords
Tonality
A bass line or quarter notes on the pulse, that just "walks along."
They can include steps (adjacent notes) or leaps (skips)
Walking Bass
Rapid up and down motion of the pitch.
Gives warmth to a sound.
From the verb "vibrate"
Vibrato
Tone color. Caused by relative strength of the overtone series.

This is what describes the sounds of different instruments.
Timbre
An instrumental effect sounding like a trill but with a wider intervallic range. Produced by "shaking" the mouthpiece against the lips.
Shake
The melody of the tune. A jazz performance usually begins by playing the "head".
Head
similar to a riff - a pattern of notes, in all keys, used as the basic vocabulary of jazz.
Lick
A short repetitive figure usually played by a section behind a soloist.
Riff
"Pizzicato" - the strings are plucked instead of bowed (arco)
Pizz
An accompanying line or part, used to enhance a melody.
Obligato
A listing of recordings, usually categorized by genre, player, or band.

i.e.- a list of all recordings by Duke Ellington
Discography
Musical term meaning get softer.
Dimeuendo
Technical facility, or endurance (Slang)
Chops
A form of musical response, i.e. one choir answering another; music characterized by the alternation of two or more parts.
Antiphonal
A generic term used in composition and improvisation, it originates from black church music.
Call & Response
To stop a note.

The bridge of a tune.
Release
To start a note
Attack
Manipulation of certain chord tones, putting them in different order.
Voicing
A five note scale, with no 4th or 7th scale degree.
Used by many players as basic vocabulary for the jazz language.
Very useful in playing the blues.
Pentatonics
Similar to a scale.
A sequence of acoustic relationships.
Not the same as a key.
Came from ancient "church modes"
Examples: Dorian, Lydian, Mixolydian, etc.
Mode
To play above the pitch.
A chromatic alteration to a pitch.
Sharp
To play below the pitch.
A chromatic alteration to a pitch.
Flat
Notes that are found naturally in a given key.
Diatonic
Notes that are "foreign" to a given key, and the free utilization of altered notes.

Notes that lend color to the sound of a chord or scale.
Chromatic
A note, part of a particular scale, that gives a "bluesy" quality to the musical line. Includes the notes flat 3,5, and 7.
Also, a very famous jazz club in NYC.
Blue Note
A series of chords, or harmonies. Referred to as the changes.
Harmonic Progression
The groupings of these pulses or beats. It can be caused by accenting certain beats.
Top number indicates number of beats/measure
Bottom number indicates what unit receives 1 beat.

Examples 4 3 6
4 4 8
Meter
Same as bar. A group of pulses.
Measure
The pattern that goes on top of the beat (pulse).
Rhythm
Form of many standard tunes. 32 bars long. 4 sections of 8 bars each. Includes a BRIDGE
AABA