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AP Government Test 1
Terms in this set (72)
the governing body of a nation, state, or community
the conflicting views based on government decisions
any activity that shapes, affects, or involves the political sphere
the rule of the many
A government in which all or most citizens participate directly
A government in which leaders make decisions by winning a competitive struggle for the popular vote
a government in which elected representatives make the decisions
is one possible ideology of governing a society or state as a republic. The key point is that the people hold popular sovereignty, rather than the people being subjects of a king
the principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives
majority rule minority rights
The majority's decisions must heed the protection of the minorities.
Majoritarianism is a traditional political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society.
the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations.
policy making system
the process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time
A state in which many groups or factions are so strong that a government is unable to function.
when competition among all affected interests shapes public policy
when government is dominated by a few top leaders most of whom are outside the government
a structure within a society that connects the people to the government or centralized authority
declaration of independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
articles of confederation
a weak constitution that governed America during the revolutionary war
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. These amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press guarantee defendants' rights.
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens.
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government and was widely accepted among America's Founders.
According to Locke, a ruler gains authority through the consent of the governed. The duty of that government is to protect the natural rights of the people, which Locke believed to include life, liberty, and property.
a theory or model, originating during the Age of Enlightenment, that typically addresses the questions of the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.
Consent of the governed
the idea that a government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and legal when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-revolutionary war soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
New Jersey Plan
Proposal to create a weak national government
proposal to create a strong national government
Connecticut (Great compromise)
Plan to have a popularly elected house based on state population and a state-selected senate with two members for each state
fifths compromise-On this date in 1787, the Three-fifths Compromise was enacted. Delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia that year accepted a plan offered by James Madison determining a state's representation in the U.S. House of Representatives. The issue of how to count slaves split the delegates into two groups.
Writ of Habeas Corpus
An order to produce an arrested person before a judge
Separation of powers
Constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of govt
Checks and balances
Authority shared by three branches of government
a provision that allows a congressional resolution (passed by a majority of congress, but not signed by the President) to nullify a rulemaking or other action taken by an executive agency.
Affordable care act cases
Amid intense public interest, Congress passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), which became effective March 23, 2010. The ACA sought to address the fact that millions of Americans had no health insurance, yet actively participated in the health care market, consuming health care services for which they did not pay
Factions (Federalist #10)
an essay written by James Madison as the tenth of The Federalist Papers, a series arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution.
creates the whole union into one government
addresses means by which appropriate checks and balances can be created in government and also advocates a separation of powers within the national government.
Also referred to as "layer cake" model (dual federalism), wherein each level of government (national/ state) is supreme within its domain of responsibility. Marble cake where Federal role is to provide resources, cooperative federalism, powers shared between national and state governments.
powers given to the national government alone. also called the Enumerated Powers, are the powers of Congress established in section eight of Article I of the US Constitution. There are nineteen such powers.
powers given to the state government aone
powers shared by the national and state governments
powers denied to the states
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states.
Transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments.
supported the Virginia plan and a strong central government
those who favor a stronger national government
Federalists- Those who favor a weaker national government
The power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national government today are these.
A group of nations or states, or a government encompassing several states or political divisions, in which the component states retain considerable independence. This is how the states were before the federal government was given more power
the provision in Article Six, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution that establishes the United States Constitution, federal statutes, and treaties as "the supreme law of the land."
Necessary and Proper/Elastic Clause
Section of the Constitution allowing congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the constitution
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
powers Congress a set of so-called implied powers—that is, powers not explicitly named in the Constitution but assumed to exist due to their being necessary to implement the expressed powers that are named in Article I.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
A clause in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
Categorical grants in aid
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
Federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications.
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations.
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
a governmental unit's apportioning of part of its tax income to other units of government.
interstate commerce clause
gives Congress exclusive power over trade activities among the states and with foreign countries and Indian tribes.
mandates (funded and unfunded)
Terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants.
⅔ of both houses of congress vote to propose an amendment or ⅔ of state legislatures ask Congress to call a national convention to propose amendments. To ratify an amendment ¾ of the state legislatures approve it or ratifying conventions in ¾ of the states approve it.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.(if U is Mad take it to court)
McCulloch v. Maryland
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In deciding this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and his colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution. (National government is stronger than MD)
Gibbons v. Ogden
A landmark case decided in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity. (OOOO, )
Welfare Reform act of 1996
the promise by the leaders of the country to end welfare as it had existed since its inception. A new era of welfare benefits and provisions was on the horizon. Recipients of TANF, or Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, were required to work at least 20 hours per week, and the reform statute listed 12 authorized activities accepted to meet this requirement. According to reports, within 3 years of the reforms enactment, millions of Americans had moved from being dependent on welfare to being self-sufficient. In addition, agencies reported a reduction in the number of social welfare cases.
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