Hurricanes and Clouds

General stuff for midterm
Where do hurricanes get their energy?
1. Sun's radiation warms oceans and air above the water
2. Humid air rises, expands, and cools
3. Forms clouds, creating condensation and releases energy
*Begin over warm water in low pressure area
From ice, or solid, to gas
From gas to solid, or ice
Specific Heat
Amount of heat needed to raise temperature of a substance by 1 degree Celsius
EX: Water has a very high specific heat
Latent Heat
Energy that is released or absorbed during a phase change
Cloud Formation
1. Air rises
2. Air cools and loses energy
3. Air reaches 100% relative humidity
4. Condensation
Evaporated water and dust
Sun causes air to rise
Dew Point
Reached condensation, temperature
Horizontal movement from areas of high pressure to low pressure
Why does pressure occur?
Unequal heating of atmosphere
Local Winds
Caused by unequal heating within Earth's surface within a small area
Global Winds
Winds that blow steadily over long distances
Coriolis Effect
Earth's Rotation causes global winds to curve The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.
Horse Latitudes
Hot air cools, then sinks, no wind
30 degrees North and South of equator
Trade Winds
Blow from horse latitudes
Prevailing Westerlies
Blow northwest away from the horse latitudes
Polar easterlies
Cold air near the poles sinks and flows towards lower latitudes
Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60degrees-90degrees latitude in both hemisphere.
Band of air around the equator that is heated a rises with little wind and low pressure
Tropical storm that has winds of 118 km/hr or higher
Levels of Storms
Tropical Depression
Tropical Storm
Saffir-Simpson Scale
Classifies hurricanes according to wind speed, flooding, and potential for property damage
Storm Surge
Occurs when hurricane winds drive ocean water onshore, can reach 6 m above normal sea level