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Dr. P Chapter 2
Terms in this set (72)
The three types of subatomic particles that are important for understanding chemical reactions in the human body are
protons, neutrons, and electrons
Which of the following subatomic particles has a neutral charge?
What region of an atom contains the protons and neutrons?
The number of protons in an atom is represented by an element's
This refers to a weighted average of the atomic weights of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element.
Describe a beneficial use of radiation.
Radiation can be used for medical imaging, as tracers to follow chemicals in the body, and as treatments for certain types of cancers
Briefly describe the octet rule.
One atom is more likely to interact with another atom if doing so will leave both atoms with eight electrons in their valence shells.
Which of the following subatomic particles are shared by two atoms to form covalent bonds?
This is the name given to a negatively charged atom.
A chemical that can conduct electrical current when dissolved in water is called a(n)
This type of chemical bond involves the sharing of valence electrons between two atoms.
Describe a hydrogen bond.
Form between a hydrogen atom that had partial psitive charge and another atom, like oxygen or nitrogen, carrying partial negative charge.
A chemical reaction involves interactions between the _______ of two different atoms.
This is defined as the capacity to do work.
Describe the law of conservation of energy.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed but it may be converted from one form to another form.
This type of chemical reaction will absorb more energy than it releases.
An enzyme acts to
lower the activation energy needed to start the reaction
List three factors that increase the rate of chemical reactions.
presence of enzymes, increase in concentration of reactants, and increased temperature.
This type of chemical reaction combines reactants to produce larger products.
This type of chemical reaction breaks larger reactants into smaller products.
This is the most abundant and most important inorganic compound in the body.
A solute that readily dissolves in water is
In the body fluid compartments found in the human body, the solvent is
Describe the functions of water in the body.
Transportation of solutes
Acts in hydrolysis reactions to split reactants
Transport heat in the body and can be used to release heat by sweating
A chemical compound that helps control the pH of a solution by adding or removing hydrogen ions is a(n)
Which of the following is a proton donor?
Specific arrangements of atoms within an organic molecule that confer characteristic chemical properties upon that molecule are called
Which of the following is a monosaccharide that is used by cells to produce energy?
This lipid is used by the body as a precursor for the production of steroid hormones.
Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are
lipids and eicosanoids
Describe the structural characteristics of an amino acid.
Contains a central atom with 1)hydrogen atom, 2) an amino group, 3) an acidic carboxyl group, and 3) a side chain attached to it.
List the six major functions of proteins.
1) Structural 2) regulatory 3) contractile 4) immunological 5) transport 6) catalytic
The primary structure of a protein consists of
a squence of amino acids linked by peptide bond
Which of the following is NOT a property of enzymes?
Enzymes are irreversibly changed by the reactions that they catalyze
Describe what happens to a protein's structure and function when it is denatured.
The folded conformation of a protein unravels and loses its unique shape. The loss of that shape destroys the proteins ability to accomplish its function
Which of the following is a purine base?
Which of the following is a common function of RNA?
transfer information from protein sythesis
Which of the following is the major function of DNA?
long-term storage of information for protein sythesis
Which of the following describes the major function of ATP in cells?
transfers energy for cell functions
Which monomer is used to build RNA and DNA?
Which of the following illustrates the use of a radioisotope as a tracer?
monitor blood flow through the heart
Which of the following describes the major significance of the element carbon in the human body?
forms backbone of all organic molecules
Which of the following describes the major significance of the element iron in the human body?
ionized forms are part of hemoglobin
Which of the following describes the major significance of the element chlorine in the human body?
Ionized form is most plentiful anion in extracellular fluid
Which of the following describes the major significance of the element magnesium in the human body?
ionized form is needed for action of many enzymes
Which of the following describes the major significance of the element nitrogen in the human body?
is a component of all proteins and nucleic acids
Which of the following chemical elements present in the body is NOT considered a lesser element?
Which of the following chemical elements present in the body is considered a lesser element? (2)
Which of the following chemical elements present in the body is NOT a trace element?
Which of the following chemical elements present in the body is considered a trace element?
Which of the following can lower the amount of free radicals in the body?
Which of the following is NOT an antioxidant?
Which of the following substances has a pH closest to 7.0?
cerebrospinal fluid, semen
Which of the following carbohydrates is a disaccharide?
Which of the following carbohydrates is a polysaccharide?
This type of lipid is used by the body for insulation.
This type of lipid is involved in blood clotting.
This type of protein is involved with shortening of muscle cells to produce movement.
This type of protein protects against pathogens.
Define mixture and then distinguish between the three types of mixtures called solutions, colloids and suspensions.
solution- evenly dispersed, have clear appearance
Colloids- like solution except big enough to scatter light, appears translucent
Suspensions- the suspended material will eventually settle out.
Frying an egg causes the clear runny part of the egg to turn to white. This process is called
Cellulose is a
Why is the human digestive system unable to digest cellulose?
Human digestive system lacks the enzyme to recognize the structure and break the bonds that hold this polysaccharide together.
A triple covalent bond is formed between atoms sharing _______ valence electrons.
In a polar covalent bond, the atom that has the most electronegativity will have a
partial negative charge
Which of the following is a general term used to refer to the sum of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body?
The energy stored in the bonds of the molecules in the foods that humans eat is
Which of the following is NOT a common characteristic of the endergonic chemical reactions that occur in the human body?
energy of reactants is lower than energy of products
The initial energy "investment" needed to start a chemical reaction in a cell is called the
All of the following are characteristics of anabolism EXCEPT:
It releases large amounts of energy
AB + CD → AD + BC is a general example of a(n) _____ reaction.
Which of the following statements is true with regard to a one molar solution of NaCl? (atomic mass of chlorine is 35.45 and atomic mass of sodium is 22.99)
The number of sodium atoms and chlorine atoms in this solution are equal
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