Upgrade to remove ads
Varieties of American Nationalism
Terms in this set (76)
Second Bank of the United States
This institution was chartered in 1816 under President Madison and became a depository for federal funds and a creditor for (loaning money to) state banks. It became unpopular after being blamed for the Panic of 1819, and suspicion of corruption and mismanagement haunted it until its charter expired in 1836. Jackson fought against this institution throughout his presidency, proclaiming it to be an unconstitutional extension of the federal government and a tool that rich capitalists used to corrupt American society.
How did America's wartime experience underline the need for another national bank?
After the expiration of the charter of the 1st B.U.S. in 1811, a large number of state banks had begun operations issuing large quantities of bank notes but not always retaining enough reserves of gold or silver to redeem the notes on demand. There was such a wide variety of notes in circulation that it made honest business difficult and counterfeiting easy.
~ First industry to be industrialized in the 18th century
~ Revolved around making cloth
--> includes cotton gathering, spinning, and weaving
How did Congress propose to promote manufacturing in the United States?
In 1816, protectionists in Congress won passage of a tariff law that effectively limited competition from abroad on a wide range of items, among the most important of which was cotton cloth.
Tariff of 1816
~ British start bringing below price goods to America, "infant industries" (new industries) call for protection
~ Tariff introduced in 1816, effectively limited competition on certain goods (esp. cotton cloth)
~ Southerners protested higher prices for manufactured goods (felt gov't was favouring the North)
~Includes better roads, waterways, etc.
~Needed by the manufacturers to get raw materials/ship products more efficiently.
~In 1807, Albert Gallatin proposes National Road connecting Potomac River to the Ohio River.
~Many roads built (privately, become toll roads) made trips through Appalachian mountains easier and cheaper
(~The Cumberland Gap was previously used)
~Steamboats stimulated the agricultural growth of the west and south.
There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
Representative John C. Calhoun promptly introduced a bill that would have used the funds owed the government by the bank of the U. S. to finance internal improvement. It passed, but on the last day of Madison's presidency he vetoed it due to Congress' lack of authority.
Madison and Internal Improvements
~Madison called for constitutional amendment to give Congress authority to construct roads
~John C Calhoun (from SC) proposed a bill for "internal improvements", but Madison vetoed it feeling that Congress lacked authority.
~State gov'ts and private enterprises would take the tremendous task of building the nation's transportation network necessary for a growing American economy.
What were the arguments in favor of internal improvements financed by the government? What were the arguments against this idea?
The absence of good roads also hindered military campaigns on the northern and western frontiers. In 1815, President Madison suggested a Constitutional amendment to give Congress authority for construction. Rep Calhoun introduced a bill that would have used the funds owed the government by the B.U.S. to finance internal improvements. President Madison vetoed the bill on his last day in office, explaining that he supported its purpose but did not believe Congress had the authority to fund the improvements without a constitutional amendment.
How was transportation improved during this period? What serious gaps remained in the nation's transportation system?
In 1807, Jefferson's sec of treasury, Albert Gallatin, proposed that revenues from the Ohio land sales should finance a National Road from the Potomac River to the Ohio River. By 1818, this highway ran as far as Wheeling, VA, on the Ohio River. Additionally, the state of PA gave $100,000 to a private company to extend the Lancaster pike westward to Pittsburgh. Stage coaches, wagons, carriages, and even cattle traveled these highways which made transportation costs across the mountains lower than ever before. At the same time, improvements in steam-powered shipping were expanding rapidly. Together, transportation improvements stimulated the agricultural economy of the West and the South by providing much readier access to markets at greatly reduced cost. They enabled eastern manufacturers to send their finished goods west. Gaps included British blockade during the War of 1812 cut off Atlantic shipping and the coastal roads became choked by the unaccustomed volume of North-South traffic. Long lines of wagons waited for a chance to use the ferries that were still the only means of crossing most rivers. Oxcarts were used, but took extensive time to travel from Philadelphia to Charleston. In some areas, there were serious shortages of goods that normally traveled by sea, and prices rose to new heights.
What were the reasons for the so-called Great Migration?
Population growth. Agricultural land in the east was occupied and in some cases exhausted. Following the war, the federal government continued policies of pushing Native tribes farther west opening up opportunities for settlement.
What were the characteristics of life among white settlers in the Old Northwest?
Small farmers and settlers moved to occupy the fertile lands wrested from Native tribes through a series of land treaties and the factor system, by which government agents supplied tribes with goods at cost and drove Canadian traders from the region. White settlers arrived on flatboats with all of their possessions and left the river to travel overland with wagons, handcarts, packhorses, cattle, and hogs.
How did life in the Old Southwest differ from that in other sections of the country?
The principal attraction was cotton as uplands in the Old South had lost much of their fertility through overplanting and erosion. The Black Belt of central Alabama and Missouri contained dark, productive soil and encouraged ambitious farmers to migrate. The growth of Southern settlement spread cotton, plantations, and slavery. Large planters would follow the first arrivals of small farmers who would clear the land. Great caravans would mark the journey of the large planters with herds of livestock, wagonloads of household goods, long lines of slaves, and the planter's family riding in carriages.
Government factors (or agents) supplied the tribes with goods at cost. Drove Canadians traders out of the region and created a situation of dependency on the factors that made Native Americans themselves easier to control.
Expansion of Cotton and Slavery
Between 1807 to 1815 the American textile industry increased due to a large amount of spindles and the new mills. The rise in the textile industry called for more slaves, because of the amount of cotton that was needed to be produced.
John Jacob Astor
Owned an American Fur Trade Co. that established Astoria as a trading post at the mouth of the Columbia river in Oregon. After the war, he centered his operations in the Great Lakes area and west towards the Rockies.
Astor's American Fur Company
~ 1811, John Jacob Astor establishes American Fur Co. in Astoria at the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon.
~ Eventually sold it to British/Canadian company.
~ Fur traders started by purchasing pelts from Indians, then Anglo-Americans began to hunt Beaver and other animals on their own.
~ Fur trappers and explorers who spent years in the mountains trapping furs.
~ Their movement to the far west dominated and transformed the region
~ Established relationships with Natives (Indian and Mexican) and altered the character of the society of this region.
~ 2/3 of the trappers married Indian or Mexican women
~ Almost all of them were in debt
~ The "meeting" of the supply train was an annual event where trappers would come together for a hot meal, drinks, and stories of their year ("The Rendezvous")
~ Notable mountain men include Jedediah Smith, Jim Bridger, Jim Beckwourth, Kit Carson
Who were the "mountain men"? Why were they important in the settlement of the West?
Trappers who moved west from the Great Lakes region and began to establish themselves in what is now Utah and parts of New Mexico in search of furs and skins for trade. They were important to the settlement of the West in the establishment of commerce and the fact that they lived peaceably and successfully with Native Americans and Mexicans whose lands they shared. Many married Indian or Hispanic women.
Rocky Mountain Fur Company
~ Sometimes called Ashley's Hundred
~ Organized in St. Louis, Missouri in 1823 by General William H. Ashley and Major Andrew Henry
~ Recruited trappers to move into the Rockies when there was less in the east
What image of the West was held by the East?
~ Most people were unaware of life out west & envisioned it through stories about mountain men
~ Explorers of the west increased eastern awareness
--> in 1819, Stephen Long leads soldiers up the Platte and South Platte rivers; his assessment dismissed Zebulon Pike's (1804) declaring the land full of potential for future settlements.
Explain the perception that easterners had of the West.
Stories of trappers like Jedidiah S. Smith depicting disastrous battles with the Mojaves and other tribes became exaggerated and popular. More important were the explorers dispatched by the US government with instructions to chart the territories they visited. Stephen H. Long (1819-20) led a group through what is now NE, CO, & KS and wrote an influential report on his trip including an assessment of the region's potential for future settlement and development.
"The Great American Dessert"
Stephen H. Long said that the region between Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains was unfit for cultivation and inhabitable by people. He labeled the great plains this.
~Sent by War Department to find source of Red River (never did), but discovered peak in Colorado
~ Named the Great Plains the "Great American Desert"
~ He called the land uninhabitable for people dependent on agriculture
The "Era of Good Feelings"
~ Refers to the Presidency of James Monroe, where the bitter rivalry between the Federalists and Republicans ended
--> political bitterness declined because the Federalists had largely dissolved and were no longer attacking the president, then causing an era of good feeling because there was only one political party
--> the nation was politically united behind the Democratic-Republican Party~ Expansion of the economy, growth of white settlement and trade in the West, creations of new states
--> all reflected the rising spirit of nationalism that was permeating the United States in the years following the War of 1812
--> that spirit found reflection for a time in the character of national politics
The Virginia Dynasty
Four out of the first five presidents were from Virginia. Many in the north were growing inpatient of this.
~ Washington, Jefferson, Madison and Monroe
Monroe's Goodwill Tour
~ Monroe brought back this idea of giving thank you speeches to all the major cities
~ Ended the Federalist party's reign
The Seminole War
~ US claim to West Florida in dispute
~ Adams worked with Spain's minister (Luis de Onis) to resolve
~ General Andrew Jackson ordered to protect Americans along Florida border from raiding Indians
--> instead attacked British forts at Pensacola and St. Marks, executing 2 British soldiers charged with inciting the Seminole Indians.
~ Monroe did not condemn Jackson, but instead Adams urged him to accept responsibility
~ Saying that they had done what was necessary to stop threats from across the borders showed the Spanish that the United States could easily take Florida by force, and that they might consider doing so, which led to more negotiations with the Spanish minister
~ 1819, Spain gave up Florida and claimed north of the 42nd parallel in the Pacific NW
~ Spain received the US guarantee to give up claims of Texas
What were the critical points decided by the Adams-Onis negotiations?
Spain ceded all of FL to the US and gave up claim to territory north of 42nd parallel in Pacific NW. In return, the American government gave up its claims to TX.
The Panic of 1819
~ High demand for farm goods following the War of 1812 stirred a land boom out west, causing land prices to soar
~ Easy credit to settlers and speculators from the gov't, state banks, etc. fuelled the boom
~ 1819, new regulations: banks tighten credit, call in loans, and foreclose on mortgages
--> state banks began to fail
--> financial panic ensued, causing many to rethink expansion
--> depression lasted six years.
~ 1820: people still committed to growth and expansion
~ Ended the Era of Good Feelings
What were the causes of the Panic of 1819?
The rising prices of farm goods had stimulated a land boom in the western US. Fueled by speculative investments, land prices soared. The availability of easy credit to settlers and speculators- from the government land acts of 1800 and 1804, state banks, wildcat banks, even the 2nd B.U.S.- fueled the land boom. In 1819, new management at the national bank began tightening credit, calling loans, and foreclosing mortgages, precipitating a series of bank failures at the state level.
What impact did the Panic of 1819 have on the American economy? What did the government do to try to ease the pain of this depression?
Following the series of state, bank failures was a financial panic that many Americans, particularly in the West, blamed on the national bank. Six years of depression followed and began a process that would eventually make the bank's existence one of the nation's most burning political issues.
Boom and Bust
A rise in an economy, followed by a downturn as the economy falls due to items losing value. This is a cycle that the United States economy follows.
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West) and its residents are devoted to their little section rather than to the country as a whole. This can lead to conflict. (cough Civil War cough)
~ Aggressive pride and devotion to one's country
~ The political idea that all the people of one ethnic group should be united in one country
The Missouri Compromise
~ The Tallmadge Amendment
--> 1819 Missouri applies for statehood (slavery exists there)
--> Rep. James Tallmadge, Jr. (NY) proposes an amendment prohibiting any further introduction of slaves into Missouri and the gradual emancipation of those already there
~ Provoked controversy for next two years
--> Missouri entrance would upset the balance of 11 free and 11 slave states
--> Maine (previously part of MA) applied for statehood as a free state
: proposed by Sen. Jesse Thomas (IL) - Maine as a free state, Missouri as a slave state, and to outlaw slavery in the Louisana Territory north of the 36°30' parallel.
~ The resolution made people happy, but it revealed a new sense of sectionalism that would eventually overpower nationalism
~ Submitted by James Tallmadge, Jr. in the United States House of Representatives on February 13, 1819, during the debate regarding the admission of Missouri as a state
~ Proposed by James Tallmadge, Jr
~ Said that said Missouri could not have any more slaves enter and gradual emancipation of all slaves there
~ Was an attempt to have no more slaves brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of slaves already there
~ In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South
In 1819, Representative Tallmadge proposed an amendment to the bill for Missouri's admission to the Union, which the House passed, but the Senate blocked. The amendment would have prohibited the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and would have mandated the emancipation of slaves' offspring born after the state was admitted.
What were the major elements of disagreement in the debate over the admission of Missouri into the Union?
Slavery. The proposed Tallmadge amendment sought to prohibit the further introduction of slaves into MO and provide for the emancipation of those already there.
Which group opposed Missouri's entering the Union as a slave state? Why?
Northern members of Congress who were concerned that it would disrupt the balance of power and representation that existed between free and slave states.
What was the Missouri Compromise? Why did nationalists regard it as a "happy resolution of a danger to the Union"? Why were others less optimistic?
Maine would be admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state to maintain a balance of power in government. Senator Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois proposed an amendment prohibiting slavery in the LA purchase territory north of the southern boundary of MO (36-30 parallel). Nationalists must have believed that the Union was preserved. Others were less optimistic and foresaw that conflict would reemerge as the issue of slavery was far from being resolved.
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state.
Fletcher v Peck
~ The Supreme Court struck down a state law as unconstitutional
~ In the Yazoo Land, Fraud Georgia claimed a bunch of land from the Louisiana Purchase that it had no right to claim
~ Georgia then sold the land to speculators who sold it to farmers
~ The Federal government stepped in and takes back the land and tells Georgia to give back the money but the money will just end up with the speculators and not the farmers
~ The Federal government says that the farmers must be paid
~ This was asserting federal power over state power
~ It protected property rights and allowed the invalidation of state laws that conflicted with the Constitution
Who led the opposition to the Marshall Court, and what was the position they took in denouncing it?
Advocates of states rights, particularly in the South, and the Republican party in Congress and the White House would have led the opposition to the Marshall Court. In the case of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Republicans attempted to revise Dartmouth's charter to convert it from a private college to a state university.
Dartmouth College v Woodward
~ Republicans tried to revise Dartmouth's charter to turn it into a state university
--> Daniel Webster argued the college's case, and the Court decided it was a charter that couldn't be repealed
~ This placed restrictions on the ability of state governments to
McCulloch v Maryland
~ State of Maryland attempted to impede the operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States
--> imposed a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland
~ Though the law, by its language, was generally applicable, the U.S. Bank was the only out-of-state bank then existing in Maryland, and the law is generally recognized as specifically targeting the U.S. Bank
~ The Court invoked the Necessary-and-proper clause in the Constitution
--> Allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution's list of express powers as long as those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers
Gibbons v Odgen
~ Questioned whether Congress could give Thomas Gibbons a license when New York granted Ogden a monopoly
~ Marshall said the Constitution gives Congress alone the
control of the interstate commerce
~ Major infringement of states rights
What was the long-range significance of the case of Gibbons v. Ogden? Of immediate importance, how did the case help to blunt criticism of the Court?
The Court strengthened Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce. This and similar decisions established federal primacy over states, which would blunt criticism of the Court.
Johnson v McIntosh
~ The Supreme Court of the United States held that private citizens could not purchase lands directly from Native Americans
~ Supreme Court ruling that defined Indian's role, they sold land to Johnson but Congress began to sell land he already bought
~ Established that Indian
tribes had rights to tribal lands
that preceded all other American law that
only federal gov
could take land from the tribes.
Worcester v Georgia
~ Marshall Court held that Cherokee Native Americans were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty
~ Court established the doctrine that the national government of the United States, and not individual states, had authority in Indian affairs
~ However, the judicial outcome that was apparently favorable to the claims of the Cherokee was subsequently precluded by a hostile Congress and the equally hostile President Andrew Jackson
~ In reaction to this decision, President Andrew Jackson has often been quoted as defying the Supreme Court with the words: "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it!"
~ Jackson did not enforce Marshall's decision, and the Cherokee were eventually relocated to Indian Territory (part of present-day Oklahoma) in what would become known as the Trail of Tears
Latin American Revolutions
~ 1815 US proclaimed neutrality between Spain and its revoluting South American colonies
--> US was not really neutral, sold ships and supplies to the rebels
~ 1822 President Monroe recognizes 5 new nations: Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Chile, and Mexico
The Monroe Doctrine
~ 1823, Monroe issues "Monroe Doctrine" to Europe
~ Was the first and most famous American foreign policy
--> Declares that the continents in the western hemisphere were off limits to future colonization from European nations
--> In return, the US would not interfere in European business
--> Note that the US didn't really have this power they just kinda acted like they did (all about that swagger man)
~ Was an important expression of the growing nationalism in the U.S. in the 1820's, and it established the idea of the U.S. as the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere (like I said: swagger)
How was it that the United States' proclamation of neutrality in the wars between Spain and its colonies actually aided the colonies? Why did the United States do this?
It implied partial recognition of the rebels' status as nations. The US also sold ships and supplies to the revolutionaries. Essentially the enactment of the Monroe Doctrine was for the purpose of keeping European powers at bay with respect to the Americas and another sign of the growing nationalism in the United States in the 1820s.
Why were the leaders of New England disturbed at the nomination end election of James Monroe for president, and what did Monroe do to calm these fears?
Many in the North were expressing impatience with the so-called VA dynasty. Monroe was a citizen of great integrity having served in the Revolutionary War, as a diplomat, and as Sec of State. In his cabinet selection, he took care to offer positions to northerners and southerners, easterners and westerners, Federalists and Republicans, including his choice of Sec of State, former Federalist and New Englander John Quincy Adams
In the election of 1824 there was no candidate with over 50% of the electoral votes. John Quincy Adams told the Speaker of the House Henry Clay to influence the representatives to vote for him. He ended up winning even though Jackson got the most votes.
What was the "corrupt bargain," and why did it take place?
Following the election outcome that seemed unfair to the Jacksonians, Adams appoints Clay secretary of state, a position which had become a well-established route to the Presidency.
The Congressional nominating caucus is the name for informal meetings in which American congressmen would agree on who to nominate for the Presidency and Vice Presidency from their political party. Up until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but in 1824, this idea was overthrown. Andrew Jackson's term for the selection process of candidates.
Why was the caucus system viewed with such disdain before the election of 1824?
Prior to 1824, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but the Federalist party had ceased operation, leaving a one party system. Factions arose within the party that disagreed with the party nomination of William H. Crawford of Georgia.
Election of 1824
~ End of the "Caucus System" due to the nomination of multiple candidates by the states
~ The Candidates were...
--> William Crawford (GA Rep. & Sec. of Treasury)
--> John Q. Adams (MA Whig & Sec. of State)
--> Henry Clay (TN Whig & Speaker of the House)
~ Devoted following for his "American System"
--> Andrew Jackson (TN Rep & military hero)
~ 12th amendment gave the House the vote from the top three candidates:
--> Jackson wins 50% +1 of the electoral votes.
--> Crawford becomes ill and dropped out.
--> Clay decides that Jackson is dangerous political rival and felt Adams would support his system
--> Adams won and named Clay his Sec. of State
~ Jackson declares the win a "corrupt bargain"
Who were the candidates in the election of 1824? What was the platform of each?
Sec of Treasury William H. Crawford of Georgia, Sec of State John Quincy Adams, Speaker of the House Henry Clay of KY, Senator and war hero (common man) Andrew Jackson of TN
What was the outcome of the election of 1824? How was that result arrived at, and what part did Henry Clay play in it?
~ Jackson received more popular and electoral votes, but not a majority
~ Adams wins
--> The12th amendment required the House to choose between the 3 most popular candidates
~ Jackson and Clay were rivals, so Clay supported Adams and his endorsement helped Adams win
John Quincy Adams
~ Committed Nationalist
--> one of America's greatest diplomats
--> considered his most important task to be American expansion
~ Part of the Whig party
~ Wins the election of 1824 through the "Corrupt Bargain"
~ Proposed an ambitious nationalist program similar to Clay's American system
--> Jacksonians in Congress blocked it
~ Tried to keep Georgia from breaking Treaty and moving Indians, no power to stop them
What did John Quincy Adams plan to accomplish during his presidency? What role was the federal government to play in these plans? Was he successful? Why or why not?
~ He proposed an ambitious nationalist policy similar to Clay's American System
--> promoting home markets through protective tariff, strengthening the national bank, and financing internal improvements
~ The Jacksonians in Congress blocked most of it
In the field of foreign affairs, what did Adams and Clay attempt to do? Were they successful? Why or why not?
They attempted to have an active role in an international conference of the Americas in 1826. They were unsuccessful as Southerners in Congress objected to convening with black delegates from Haiti.
~ Venezuelan liberator who called an international conference in Panama
--> Since black Haitians would be there, southerners in Congress opposed the idea of Americans going, delayed the decision so long that Americans didn't arrive till it was over
Tariff of Abominations
~ High tariff used to protect textile manufacturers against low-priced British items
~ Benefits of protecting one section had to be weighed with protecting another section from high-priced raw materials
~ Hated by Southerners
~ Proposed by those who hated Monroe
~ Goal was to make Andrew Jackson popular and wanted by the people
~ Plan for this tax, which nobody thought would be passed, was to increase taxes by 68% on 92% of goods
--> was an outrageous law, they knew, but they presented it only to make Andrew Jackson look good
~ The law, ended up being passed, ended Jackson, the next president, had the mess on his hands to deal with
What problems brought on the tariff debates of 1827 and 1828? In what way did the South respond to northeastern demands for a higher tariff, and on what did the forces opposed to the tariff base their stand?
In NE, woolen manufacturers requested a new tariff as Britain was dumping textiles on the American market at artificially low rates. In an effort to gain the support of middle and western states, the administration had to accept duties on other items. In the process, it antagonized the original NE supporters of the bill. The benefits of protecting now had to be weighed against the prospects of having to pay more for raw goods.
What was the outcome of these tariff debates, and why was it that few were pleased with these results?
In signing the bill, Adams earned the animosity of southerners, who cursed it as the "tariff of abominations."
Division of the Republican party
--> called for an assault on privilege and supported Jackson
--> appealed to the common man or those who opposed economic aristocracy
--> Jeffersonian Republican Party are the names political scientists and historians, respectively, use--for the American political party founded in the early 1790s by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Members typically called themselves "Republicans."
~ National Republicans:
--> supported economic nationalism and J Q Adams
--> also appealed to the left over Federalists
--> during the administration of John Quincy Adams (1825-1829), the president's supporters were referred to as Adams Men or Anti-Jackson
--> when Jackson became president in 1829, this group went into opposition
He invaded Florida and started the Seminole War after receiving orders from Calhoun. A democratic republican who appealed to those who opposed the "economic aristocracy". He became the 7th president.
Why was Florida such a problem for Americans in the South, and how did Andrew Jackson make the resolution of the problem an absolute necessity?
Florida was home to the Seminole Indians who continually raided American territories. Jackson had order from Sec of War Calhoun to "adopt necessary measures" to stop continuing raids on American territory. Jackson's raid demonstrated to the Spanish that the US could easily take FL by force.
Election of 1828
~ Considered the "dirtiest election in the 19th century"
~ Adams is accused of buying gambling machines with the tax-payer's money
~ Jackson's wife Rachel accused of bigamy (died from the stress)
~ Jackson wins by a landslide; declared it a new era for democracy and a new era for the common man
~ Featured a rematch between John Quincy Adams, now incumbent President, and Andrew Jackson
~ As incumbent Vice President John C. Calhoun had sided with the Jacksonians, the National Republicans led by Adams, chose Richard Rush as Adams' running mate
How had Andrew Jackson's supporters prepared for the election of 1828? What were the issues in the campaign, and what was the outcome?
Jackson's supporters started to call themselves the Democratic-Republicans who called for an assault on privilege and a widening of opportunity. Supporters of Adams called themselves the National Republicans. Issues counted for little as the campaign degenerated into a war of personal invective. Jackson's victory was decisive but sectional.
Who were the National Republicans? Who were their leaders? What programs did they support, and from what areas did they draw their strength?
Adams' supporters who supported the economic nationalism of the preceding years. They were largely made up of remaining Federalists. Adams showed strength in the campaign by winning virtually all of New England and parts of the mid-Atlantic region.
When Adam's supporters were ranting against Jackson, they called him a murderer and distributed this, which listed names, within coffin-shaped outlines, the names of militiamen whom Jackson was said to have shot in cold blood during the War of 1812. The men had actually been deserters who were legally executed after a sentence by a court-martial.
Age of the Common Man
Age in which Jackson wants anybody who wants to be in the government in the government, not just the elite.
Jacksonian democracy is the political philosophy of United States President Andrew Jackson and his supporters. Jackson's policies followed the era of Jeffersonian democracy which dominated the previous political era.
The Charles River Bridge Case 1837
Demonstrated that a contract could be broken to benefit general welfare. Suggested that state could cancel grant money if grant ceased to be in interest of community. Served as reversal of Dartmouth.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
VARIETIES OF AMERICAN NATIONALISM
APUSH Review 2/10
Chp 7- The Jeffersonian Era
APUSH Chapter 21 Terms
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ch 8 questions
AP US History: A New Nation
APUSH Chapter 8
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
CHM 2046 Exam 2 Dr. Jones
Language Arts Study Sec
Spanish Numbers 1 - 31
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
ANSC 337 Diseases in Domestic Livestock Quiz 3
Quiz 3: Inflammation, Immunity and Infection