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GOV 210 Bowers Test #1
Terms in this set (34)
Thomas Hobbes on Political Authority & Social Stability
- the breakdown of political authority can have devastating consequences
- Thomas Hobbes: the result of no political authority is ceaseless war of all against all
- according to Hobbes, the basic forces of human nature that make the state of nature so ugly exist below the surface of any political system
militant Islamic leader of Chechen side of Chechen-Ingushetia ethnic and territorial dispute (conflict level: terrorism), fought against Khattab, on Azeri side of Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
- Armenian forces took control of this ethnically Armenian region because they feared consequences of Azerbaijan taking control (conflict level: conventional)
Treaty of Westphalia of 1648
- nation-state system was formally ratified by the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648
- new world order?
League of Nations
- result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended WWI
- first international organization whose principal mission is to maintain world peace (prevent wars through collective security and disarmament and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration)
Concert of Europe
(also known as the Congress System after the Congress of Vienna) represented the balance of power that existed in Europe from the end of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to the outbreak of World War I
- Father of Global Jihad
- Palestinian Sunni Islamic scholar, theologian, and founding member of al-Qaeda
Osama bin Laden
- founder of al-Qaeda
- Saudi Arabian but based in Sudan
- leading member of the revolutionary Ba'ath Party
- president of Iraq
- most popular pan-Arab leaders have been
Mu'ammar Qaddafi & Saddam Hussein
- physical aggression is a basic human impulse
- the works of Konrad Lorenz such as "The Territorial Imperative" made this point long ago
- according to Professor Bernard Lewis, Muslim fundamentalists are people who see the troubles of the Muslim world as being a consequence of too much
modernization rather than too little
- for fundamentalists, the only cure for their problems is a return to "true Islam" involving repudiation of all Western traditions and a restoration of the shari'a
- political processes decentralized & flexible
- special groups articulate interests
- elections used in decision-making
- political parties help organize public
- greater control of political processes
- leaders often base power on military, religious institutions, or tradition of ruling family
- political activity limited
- these are often one-party states
- Middle East authoritarian states often based on Islamic fundamentalism
- all beliefs and values subordinate to state
- traditional institutions uprooted
- totalitarianism is relatively rare
Germany, Soviet Union, North Korea, Cuba, and China exhibit vestiges of Communist totalitarianism
- the term "totalitarian" was coined by Mussolini as an aspiration more than reality
- totalitarianism is a modern form of autocracy
- technology required for totalitarianism
- Friedrich & Brzezinski: totalitarian model
- single mass party dedicated to that ideology
- command economy
- monopoly of mass communications & effective force
- terror directed against arbitrarily selected components of society
- a guide to political action and public policy
- an explanation of political behavior and the exercise of power
* Political Philosophy:
- those who have placed study of politics in the broadest context have generally been philosophers first and students of politics second: Plato, Hegel, and John Dewey considered questions about epistemology (theories of knowledge) and ethics (morality), and their work had implications for politics
* Systematic Political Theory:
- different from political philosophy
- political theorists study politics as 1st concern & do not look at broad questions of truth: Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
- less analytical than philosophy or political theory
- exists as commonly held beliefs, not as the work of a scholar
- a network of political views by which people live
- leads to action and supports policies
* Empirical Political Theory
- focus on quantitative data
- in US, it is "essence of political science"
- tendency to treat political life narrowly
- theorists can claim to be neutral because they do not consider broader issues
Concepts Behind Political Theory
* Nature of the Universe
- 19th century: biological theories embraced to explain social behavior
- Darwinism supported the rise of National Socialism in Germany
* Human Nature
(1) People may be seen as good and fundamentally rational.
(2) They may be seen as fundamentally bad.
(3) They may be seen as neither good or bad but simply products of their environment.
* Views of Society
- Hegel argued that society is organic and people are just cogs in a machine. Jeremy Bentham said there is no such thing as society, merely discrete individuals who work together.
- 3rd view says groups define society
Forms of political power
1) Coercive power: crudest, most direct form; use of threat or force
2) Authoritative power: enjoyed by elected officials
3) Political influence or persuasion: more subtle and complex; media, church, family
4) Political manipulation: most subtle and effective; unobtrusive, diverting attention
Issues discussed by Samuel P. Huntington in his "Clash of Civilizations"
- environmental problems will exacerbate existing tensions and alter power relationships
- sets the stage for what Samuel P. Huntington sees as a "clash of civilizations"
- stages of conflict:
1) Nation-state conflict
2) Ideological conflict
3) Cultural conflict
- Huntington saw conflict in simple terms of
Islam vs. Christianity - it is more complex
- Huntington's hypothesis of Christian/Islam clash has yet to materialize because of distractions caused by
- Azeri Turks see their culture as being Turkic first and Islamic second
- Christian Armenians oppose the Turks because of the 1915 genocide
* Balkans, which helped spark violence early in the 20th century, may be a catalyst for 21st century violence
- clear confrontation between Orthodox Christianity and Islam
- immediacy of this clash is forestalled only by peripheral clashes between Turkic and Iranian civilizations
What factors shape the development and security of Turkey?
- population 99% Muslim/is a secular state
- little alcoholism & crime
- poverty & illiteracy are modest, making it hard for Islamic extremist to find recruits
- Turkish Muslim culture is strong and can endure slums without collapsing
- urbanization proceeds slowly
- Turkish Islam has accommodated modernization & has experienced an Islamic "reformation"
- little oil but an abundance of water
- federalism would not work in Turkey b/c their interest in the Iraqi war was to prevent the formation of a Kurdish state, as such an entity would threaten Turkish interests
- situation is exacerbated by the region's increasingly difficult environmental situation
- various forms of pollution were one of the most prominent consequences of communism
What is the impact of economic modernization on the traditional state individual?
economic modernization fuels individual and group ambitions but undermines loyalty to traditional state
How has war changed in recent decades in terms of its conduct, the participants, and the goals?
- intense savagery of fighting in Liberia, Bosnia, and the Caucasus indicates that there has been a profound transformation of war
- there are many for whom life in combat represents social advancement; some people find war horrifying, while others find it fascinating
- with changes in war, state military machines will become outmoded
- inability to maintain ceasefires in Balkan and Caucasus conflicts demonstrates that old rules of war are no longer in effect
- trend is toward wars waged by cultures rather than states so cultural and religious monuments are both weapons and targets, explaining why the Taliban destroyed Buddhist relics
- organizations such as Al Qaeda have made national borders less relevant
- tribal identity means more today than in the past
- religious cults ( Jim Jones) are more significant today
- worldwide low intensity conflict is a real possibility as states lose their monopoly of force, the distinction
between crime and war will be erased
- modern technology will serve primitive ends as seen by the video tapes of beheadings in the Middle East
- future wars will be fought for communal survival
- war will be sub-national; states will be unable to provide physical security for their citizens
- constant threat of terror illustrates this today; such trends will bring about the end of the nation-state
Be able to identify a region in Africa in which Islam serves as a social anchor.
Sudan (North Africa)
Understand the basic theme advanced by Dinish D'Souza in his analysis of radical Islam.
- in "The Enemy at Home", Dinish D'Souza's thesis is that the cultural left and its allies are the primary cause of the volcano of anger toward America that is erupting from the Islamic world
- Muslims who carried out the 9/11 attacks were the product of this visceral rage
Be able to describe the outlook of Islamic fundamentalists in terms of the problems of the Muslim world.
- for fundamentalists, the only cure for their problems is a return to "true Islam" involving repudiation of
all Western traditions and a restoration of the shari'a law
- fundamentalists view the "false Muslims" who rule throughout the Islamic world as their greatest enemies
- connections between Saudi Arabia and the Wahhabi faith are responsible for the greatest problems associated with Islam and contemporary terrorism
Assess the development of the Muslim world in terms of gross domestic product , political parties like the Ba'th party, and other factors such as literacy.
- Muslim world has failed to experience positive developmental trends
- economic difficulties and the dominant role of the US stimulate resentment
- in terms of gross domestic product, the highest ranking Muslim majority country is Turkey which ranks 23rd in the world; 21st in industrial output is Saudi Arabia, books sales & publications are low in most Islamic nations
- Ba'th Party, whose different branches ruled Syria & Iraq, was based Nazi & Soviet models
The advance of Christianity into 18th century Arabia and the decline of Islam had what impact on Wahhabism?
- advance of Christianity into 18th century Arabia and the decline of Islam resulted in new support for Wahhabism
Know the significance of Saudi oil money in terms of what causes it supports.
- 1933: Saudis signed agreement with Standard Oil of California which gave Wahhabi doctrines a firm economic base (Saudi king was at first reluctant but because of worldwide depression, gave in)
- much of the oil money was devoted to teaching Wahhabism
- oil economy created wealth and bitter social tensions
- political system was negatively affected by the oil economy as governments no longer needed to tax their citizens
In Soviet times, the greatest population growth in the USSR took place in what areas?
- Soviet population growth was concentrated among rural populations of Muslims in Central Asian & Azerbaijan republics
Understand goals and accomplishments of Soviet and Russian social policies.
- social policy aimed at bringing more of population into industrial production failed in Muslim (and Moldovan) republics
- low urbanization meant low assimilation, including declining rates of Russian-language knowledge
- Soviet Muslim population (main source of
additional labor) was not located near industrial production plants
Understand the impact of technology on terrorism.
- increasing lethality
- emergence of new weapons
- creates new vulnerabilities to exploit
- reduction in authority of state
- enabling of new international actors
- facilitates asymmetrical conflict
Identify characteristics of West Africa in terms of authority of central governments, tribal issues, and disease.
- central governments have lost authority
- rise of tribal fiefdoms
- unchecked spread of disease
- pervasive war
Why was Ivory Coast long regarded as an African success story?
- success was built on (1) high price of cocoa and (2) efforts of French expatriates who helped run government and private sector
What does the future seem to hold for Africa in terms of environmental scarcity, racial divides, and the impact of geography?
Africa shows that (1) environmental scarcity, (2) cultural and racial divides, (3) geographic destiny (new approaches to mapmaking), and (4) the transformation of war are what the future holds.
What was Al Qaeda's involvement in Sudan before it moved to Afghanistan.
Osama bin Laden was based there; conducted operations and recruited members from there; several bombings and supporting civil wars
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