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wealthy landowners; smaller % of population


commoners (merchants, artisans)

First Punic War

Rome's expansion brought them into direct contact with Carthage --> battle --> Roman victory, Rome gained Sicily

Second Punic War

Hannibal wanted revenge against Rome; his plan: North Africa -> Spain -> France -> Alps -> Italy; took 50,000 infantry, 9,00 cavalry (soldier with horse), 60 elephants (after Alps he loses 1/2 men and all elephants; for years, Hannibal attacked Italian peninsula --> Scipio, Italian commander, made a plan: attack Carthage --> force Hannibal to leave --> Battle of Zama: Rome defeats Carthage

Third Punic War

Rome laid siege to Carthage; they sold 50,000 inhabitants into slavery and took full control of the city --> Rome expanded to include all of the western Meditteranean Sea

Hagia Sophia

glorious cathedral rebuilt by Justinian


value of money drops = rise in prices


system to get water into cities (Roman Empire)


paid soldiers who were less loyal (due to the Roman military crumbling)


leader of Carthage; Punic Wars


a general; member of the First Triumvirate; became jealous of Caesar:
1. Pompey and the senate ask Caesar to return to Rome without his army
2. "Crossing the Rubicon" - can't go back
3. Pompey flees to Egypt where he is eventually killed


Caesar's grandnephew; member of the Second Triumvirate; made at Antony --> defeated him at the Battle of Actium --> brought a peace to Rome because one single ruler emerged --> Pax Romana (Roman Peace)


powerful ruler during Rome's decline; ruled with an "iron fist": splits the empire:
East - speak Greek; Greece, Turkey, Egypt
West - speak Latin; Italy, France (Gaul), Spain, Britain


followed Diocletian by emerging from a group vying for power; ruler of the western part the empire (the less powerful and wealthy); moved the capitol from Rome to Byzantium (Bosphorous Strait) --> renames the city Constantinople


emerged as Byzantine emperor in the 500s; ruled with "absolute" power; head of both the church and state; wanted to reclaim the lost land of the western Roman Empire - successful; Justinian Code - decided everything in life (marriage, property, inheritance); had a 14 mile wall built around Constantinople; Hagia Sophia; Hippodrome; wanted a literate empire

Marc Antony

member of the Second Triumvirate; meets and girl and moves to Egypt; killed by Octavian at the Battle of Actium


senator; the Senate did not want to lose their power to Caesar --> Brutus (and Cassius - his friends) stabbed Caesar on "The Ides of March" (March 15)

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