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Bio final

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Biotic
An ecosystem's living factors
Abiotic
An ecosystem's nonliving factors
Habitat
The collection of biotic and abiotic factors of the area where an organism lives
Niche
The physical, chemical and biological factors a species needs in order to reproduce
Population
A group of the same species living in one area
Community
A group of different species living in one area
Ecosystem
Encompasses all of the biotic and abiotic factors of a given area
Biome
A major regional or global community of organisms
Producers
Organisms that create their own food
Consumers
Organisms that get their energy by eating living or once-living organisms
Herbivore
Organisms that only eat plants
Carnivores
Organisms that eat only animals
Omnivore
Organisms that eat both plants and animals
Decomposer
Detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds, returning vital nutrients into the environment
Food Chain
A sequence that links species by their feeding relationship
Food Web
Shows the flow of energy within an ecosystem
Trophic levels
Levels of nourishment in a food chain
Energy Pyramid
A diagram that compares the energy used by producers, primary consumers, and other trophic levels
Symbiosis
A close ecological relationship between two or more species
Mutualism
An interspecies interaction in which both organisms benefit from one another
Commensalism
A relationship between two organisms in which one receives an ecological benefit and the other is not harmed
Parasitism
A relationship between two animals in which one organism while the other is harmed
Carbon Cycle
Carbon moves into the biomass through photosynthesis and out through respiration and combustion
Biomagnification
Pollutants move higher up the food chain as predators eat prey, accumulating in higher concentration in the bodies of predators
Thermal Pollution
Changes in water temperature affect the amount of oxygen it can supply
Natural Selection
Individuals with beneficial adaptations produce more offspring than those lacking them
Requirements for natural selection
Variation, heritability, differential mortality
Adaptation
A feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment.
Survival of the fittest
Organisms who are better able to survive in their environment will generate more offspring relative to other members of the population
Directional Selection
Favors phenotypes at one extreme of a trait's range
Stabilizing Selection
Favors phenotypes at the intermediate point of a trait's range
Disruptive Selection
Favors phenotypes at both extremes of a trait's range
Divergent Evolution
Closely related species evolve in different directions
Convergent Evolution
Different species evolve toward similar characteristics
Homologous structures
Features similar in structure that appear in different organisms and have different functions
Analogous structures
Structures that perform similar functions-like flight- but are not similar in origin
Vestigial structures
Structures that had a function in an early ancestor
Bipedal
Animal that walks on two legs
Transitional fossils
A fossil near the branching point in which two species diverge in evolution
Law of Superposition
Youngest fossils rock on top, older fossils on the bottom.
Radioactive Dating
A technique that uses the natural decay rate of unstable isotopes to calculate the age of a material
Half-Life
The amount of time it takes for half the isotope in a sample to decay into a different element
Embryology
Developing embryos show features indicating their evolutionary origins
Ionic bond
A bond formed by two oppositely charged ions
Covalent bond
A bond created when two or more atoms share a pair of electrons
Polar covalent bond
Covalent bonds that share electrons unequally
Non-polar covalent bond
Covalent bonds that share electrons equally
Hydrogen bond
An attraction between between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom (Oxygen or nitrogen)
Specific heat
The amount of heat required to increase a substance's temperature by one degree
Cohesion
Attraction among molecules of the same substance
Adhesion
Attraction between molecules of different substances
Good Solvent
Because the moH+lecules that form a hydrogen bond are predominantly positive and predominantly negative respectively, they can dissolve any polar and ionic bonds
Hydrophilic
Can bond with water
Hydrophobic
Cannot bond with water
Acid
Compound that increases the levels of H+ concentration in a solution. pH <7
Base
Compound that removes H+ ions from a solution.
ph < 7
Carbohydrates
Macromolecules that can be broken down to create a usable source of energy for cells.
Monosaccharide
Simple sugar
Disaccharide
Two simple sugars bonded together
Polysaccharide
Polymers of monosaccharides.
Starch
Made and stored by plants, can be used as a source of energy.
Glycogen
Made and stored by animals, can be used as a source of energy.
Cellulose
Major building block in plant cell structure
Lipids
Non polar molecules utilized as a source of energy and in some occasions as part of a cell's structure
Fats
Store large amounts of energy in animals
Oils
Store large amounts of energy in plants
Saturated Fatty Acids
Contain fatty acids in which all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Contain fatty acids with at least one carbon-carbon double bond
Proteins
Polymers made of monomers called amino acids. Most varied carbon-based molecules in organisms
Amino acids
Building blocks of proteins, made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. 20 different variations are used in the construction of proteins
Enzymes
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Active site
A region within the enzyme that binds to a protein or other molecule during a reaction
Nucleic acids
Polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides. Two main types are DNA and RNA