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150 terms

Parasitology 1 - Practice Questions

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The dung beetle is an intermediate host for what parasite?
Spirocerca lupi
What adult stage parasite is pink to red in color?
Spirocerca lupi
What parasite causes osteosarcoma, spondylosis and osteopathy?
Spirocerca lupi
What nematode lays an egg that resembles a paperclip?
Spirocerca lupi
Macrolytic lactones are used to treat what parasite?
Spirocerca lupi
What parasite causes dysphagia and regurgitation?
Spirocerca lupi
This parasite causes catarrhal gastritis
Physaloptera spp
What are the intermediate hosts of Physaloptera spp?
Beetles, Cockroaches and Crickets
What parasite has round, dark brown, pitted-shell eggs that are 85 x 75 micrometers?
Toxocara canis
What parasites cause a pot-bellied appearance?
Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina
Which parasite causes visceral larval migrans?
Toxocara canis
How can you differentiate adult stages of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina?
The adult male has a small, finger-like process on its posterior end
What parasite causes hemorrhagic anemia with lassitude?
Ancylostoma caninum
What parasite causes moist eczema with percutaneous infection?
Ancylostoma caninum
What parasite causes cutaneous larval migrans?
Ancylostoma braziliense
What causes interdigital dermatitis?
Uncinaria stenocephala
What parasite has an esophagus that encompasses about 1/3 of its body length?
Stongyloides stercoralis
What parasite has both heterogonic and homogonic life cycles?
Stongyloides stercoralis
What parasite can cause an erythematous reaction (redness of skin) if skin is penetrated by the infective L3?
Strongyloides stercoralis
What parasite causes urticaria and diarrhea?
Strogyloides stercoralis
What is urticaria?
Elevation of the epidermis with wheal formation
What zoonosis can Stongyloides stercoralis and who is most susceptible?
Larvae can penetrate the skin. Those who are immunosuppressed are most at risk
What causes diphtheritic inflammation?
Trichuris spp
What parasites lay eggs that can survive for 3-4 years and become a reservoir for infection?
Trichuris spp
What organ is most affected by infection by Trichuris spp
Cecum
Which parasites have an infective L1 stage?
Trichuris spp, Capillaria spp
What are three predilection sites for Capillaria spp?
Airways, intestinal tract, bladder
What is the largest nematode that infects domestic animals?
Dioctophyme renale
What parasite breaks the rules of its superfamily and how?
Oslerus osleri. Direct L1, while superfamily is Indirect L3
This parasite causes millet seed-like nodules in lung parenchyma.
Oslerus osleri
A heavy infection of what parasite can cause hyperpnea (increased respiration rate)?
Oslerus osleri
What parasite are snails and slugs intermediate hosts for?
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
What parasite causes a chronic, mild cough?
Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
What parasite can be a persistent problem in kennels?
Oslerus osleri
What type of cestode produces an egg packet?
Dipylidium caninum
Does dipylidium caninum infect only dogs?
No. It also infects cats and humans
For what cestode are the flea and louse intermediate hosts?
Dipylidium caninum
What stage of the flea life cycle is able to ingest the Dipylidium caninum oncosphere?
The larval stage
What anatomical structure do cestodes use to release eggs?
Genital pores
What must a final host ingest in order for an adult cestode to develop?
A larval stage possessing a scolex
For what cestode species are humans an intermediate host?
Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis
Humans get Echinoccocus app from ingesting what?
The oncosphere
Why might you not find Spirocera lupi eggs in the feces?
1. There is a long prepatent period (6 months). 2. There may not be an opening from the granuloma to the esophageal lumen
What parasite can cause pneumonia in puppies?
Toxocara canis
Why is pneumonia a possible clinical sign with infection by Toxocara canis?
Due to hepatic tracheal migration of the larvae
What is the infective stage of Dipylidium caninum?
CysticerCOID
What is the infective stage of Echinococcus granulosus?
Hydatid cyst
What is the infective stage of Echinococcus multilocularis?
Alveolar hydatid cyst
What is the infective stage of Taenia crassiceps?
Cysticercus with ASEXUAL BUDDING
What is the infective stage of Taenia pisiformis?
Cysticercus
What is the infective stage of Taenia taeniaeformis?
Strobilocercus
What is a typical characteristic of a Taeniid egg?
Hexacanth embryo, radial striations
How many eggs does a Dipylidium caninum egg packet contain?
10-20
What are the intermediate hosts of Dipylidium caninum?
Flea, louse
What pathogenesis might be seen in humans that ingest a cysticercus of Taenia crassiceps?
Blindness
How many intermediate hosts does Diphyllobothrium latum have?
2: Copepod crustacean and freshwater fish
What is a scientific name?
Genus and species of a parasite. Like a first and last name
What do we call a parasite that develops in more than one species of host?
Broad host spectrum
What is an example of a broad host spectrum parasite?
Dipylidium caninum
Name examples of body fluids that are used in microscopic identification
Blood, feces, urine, vomitus
Define life cycle
The development of a parasite through various forms
What is the difference between infection and infestation?
Infection is when a parasite infects a host internally while infestation is when an ectoparasite attaches to or occupies a host externally
Define pathogenesis
Development of disease
Name one factor which determines clinical signs of parasite infections
Host response, number of parasites, size of parasite, duration of infection, where infection takes place, how the parasite feeds
Name a diagnostic method used for parasites
Eggs or larva in feces, blood, lymph or urine
List components of treatment and prevention
Parasiticide, management intervention
Which nematode superfamily infects ruminants?
Trichostrongyloidea
List three types of nematode life cycles
Direct L3, Direct L2 in Egg and Indirect (infective L3 or L1)
Which nematode superfamily includes heartworms?
Filaroidea
Which cestodes utilize two intermediate hosts?
Pseudophyllidia
List characteristics of trematodes
Leaf-like, oral and ventral suckers
Which host harbors larval or immature stages of helminth parasites before becoming infective to the final host? Give an example
Intermediate host
Which host harbors parasites but there is no development?
Paratenic
Which parasite infects/infests the host internally?
Endoparasite
What is the name for a disease of animals which is transmissible between animals and humans?
Zoonosis
What is the name of a parasiticide used to treat mites?
Argaside
Name four methods of locomotion for protozoa
Flagella, Cilia, Gliding Motion, Pseudopodia
What is the scientific family for the hard ticks?
Ixodidea
What is the scientific family for the soft ticks?
Argasidae
Name one characteristic of hard ticks
A hard scutum
What gender of tick has a shield that covers the entire dorsal surface?
Male
Which arachnid and which stage has 3 pairs of legs
Larval stage of soft ticks
What is the scientific order for the bugs?
Hemipterra
Phthiraptera refers to which group of insects?
Lice
Gametogony refers to asexual or sexual reproduction?
Sexual
List the types of host for the Spirocerca lupi life cycle
Final, Indirect, Paratenic
List the common sites of infection in the dog caused by Spirocera lupi
Esophagus and stomach
List the nematode parasites recovered from the stomach of dogs
Physaloptera
Why are eggs not found in the feces of some animals infected with Spirocerca lupi?
Two-fold: The PPP is 6 months so they could be infected without eggs forming yet or there may not be openings to the granulomas in the esophagus
How is Spirocerca lupi diagnosed?
Eggs in feces or vomitus
Where and what size is the adult hookworm?
Small intestine. 1-2 cm
What are the modes of infection for Ancylostoma caninum?
1. Per Os 2. Transplacental 2. Transmammary, Paratenic 5. Percutaneous
What stage of Ancylostoma caninum is most harmful?
Adult
One hookworm species causes a more severe zoonotic condition. What condition and what hookworm species is this?
Cutaneous larval migrans - Ancylostoma braziliense
What are the modes of transmission for Strongyloides stercoralis?
1. Homogonic 2. Hetergonic (infective Percutaneous and Per Os) 3. Prenatial 4. Transmammary
What are the clinical signs for Strongyloides stercoralis?
Diarrhea, URTICARIA, erythematous reaction
What is the zoonotic nature of Strongyloides stercoralis?
Larval stages can penetrate the skin, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals
How can veterinarians diagnose Capillaria in a dog or cat?
Bronchial swab, Urine Sample, Fecal Sample
What is the infective stage of Trichuris and Capillaria?
L1 in egg
Which nematode infects the lungs of dogs and cats?
Oslerus osleri
What is the intermediate host of Echinococcus granulosas and what is its larval stage?
Sheep and humans. Larval stage is the HYDATID CYST
What is the final host of Echinococcus granulosus?
Dogs and cats
What is the intermediate host of Echinococcus multilocularis and what is its larval stage?
Equine, ruminants, swine, rodents, humans. Larval stage is the ALVEOLAR HYDATID CYST
What is the final host of Echinococcus multilocularis?
Dogs and wild canids
What is the intermediate host of Dipylidium caninum and what is its larval stage?
Flea or louse. Larval stage is the CYSTCERCOID
What are the final hosts of Dipylidium caninum?
Dogs, cats, humans
What are the second intermediate host and second larval stage of Diphyllobothrium latum?
Second intermediate host is a freshwater fish. Second larval stage is the PLEROCERCOID
Does Spirometra spp infect humans?
Yes, it causes a sparganosis, primarily from eating undercooked frog
Does Diphyllobothrium cause a zoonosis and how?
Yes, by eating undercooked, infected fish
How will you prevent Diphyllobothrium in dogs and cats?
Avoid feeding undercooked fish
What are the 6 "Coathangers"?
Classes Nematoda (Roundworms), Cestoda (Tapeworms), Trematoda (Flukes), Insecta, Archnida and Subkingdom Protozoa
Give 4 characteristics of roundworms
May be free-living or parasitic, sexes are separate (unisexual), shape: UNSEGMENTED, elongated, cylindrical, and alimentary canal IS present
What group of parasites are the most numerous and diverse in veterinary parasitology?
Nematodes (roundworms)
Arthropods are ____ % of all animal species
80%
Trematodes are _____ flattened and often ______.
dorsoventrally, leaf-like
The infective stage of some protozoa is called:
sporozoite
What is a trophozoite?
The stage of a protozoa in the host which feeds and grows until division commences
Trematodes have ______ and ______ suckers
oral, ventral
A sexual stage of reproduction in protozoa is referred to as either _____ or _______.
gametogony, sporogony
A form of asexual reproduction in protozoa is:
schizogony
Asexual reproduction in protozoa is accomplished by:
binary fission
What is the common name of hemiptera?
Bedbugs
Protozoa are _____ , _______ animals
unicellular, eukaryotic
What are 3 general characteristics of arachnids?
4 sets of legs, palps rather than antennae, body divided into cephalo-thorax and abdomen
What are 3 general characteristics of insects?
3 pairs of legs, a single pair of antennae, body divided into head, thorax and abdomen
What are 3 general characteristics of arthropods?
Hard, chitinous exoskeleton, jointed limbs, segmented body
Arthropods (ectoparasites) include what two families?
Insects and Arachnids (ticks and mites)
Trematodes are usually genitally _____.
independent (hermaphroditic)
What are the two families of ticks?
IXODIDAE (hard ticks) and ARGASIDAE (soft ticks)
What is another term for trematodes?
Flukes
Each proglottid of a cestode is genitally __________.
independent (hermaphroditic)
The body, or __________ of a cestode includes head, neck and ______________.
strobila, proglottids
What is the head of a cestode also known as?
Scolex
The scolex has 4 __________ (holdfasts) with or without _________.
suckers, hooks
Describe the body of cestodes
elongated and flat
T/F: Cestodes have an alimentary canal
False
T/F: Nematodes have an alimentary canal
True
What is another term for cestodes?
tapeworms
Sexes are __________ in nematodes
separate (unisexual)
What is the shape of a nematode?
unsegmented, elongated and cylindrical
Nematodes may be ____ - _____ or ________.
free-living, parasitic
What is another term for nematodes?
roundworms
Phylum: nemathelminthes, Class: __________.
nematoda
Phylum platyhelminthes is also known as _________.
flatworms
Phylum platyhelminthes includes what two classes?
cestoda (tapeworms) and trematoda (flukes)
Phylum arthropoda includes what two classes?
insecta (flies, lice, fleas, etc) and arachnida (ticks, mites)
What are two orders of the class cestoda?
cyclophyllidea and pseudophyllidea
What is the common name for diptera? (insecta)
flies
What is the common name for phthiraptera? (insecta)
lice
What is the common name for siphonaptera? (insecta)
fleas