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How can you differentiate adult stages of Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina?
The adult male has a small, finger-like process on its posterior end
What parasite has an esophagus that encompasses about 1/3 of its body length?
What parasite can cause an erythematous reaction (redness of skin) if skin is penetrated by the infective L3?
What zoonosis can Stongyloides stercoralis and who is most susceptible?
Larvae can penetrate the skin. Those who are immunosuppressed are most at risk
What parasites lay eggs that can survive for 3-4 years and become a reservoir for infection?
What parasite breaks the rules of its superfamily and how?
Oslerus osleri. Direct L1, while superfamily is Indirect L3
What stage of the flea life cycle is able to ingest the Dipylidium caninum oncosphere?
The larval stage
What must a final host ingest in order for an adult cestode to develop?
A larval stage possessing a scolex
For what cestode species are humans an intermediate host?
Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis
Why might you not find Spirocera lupi eggs in the feces?
1. There is a long prepatent period (6 months). 2. There may not be an opening from the granuloma to the esophageal lumen
Why is pneumonia a possible clinical sign with infection by Toxocara canis?
Due to hepatic tracheal migration of the larvae
How many intermediate hosts does Diphyllobothrium latum have?
2: Copepod crustacean and freshwater fish
Name examples of body fluids that are used in microscopic identification
Blood, feces, urine, vomitus
What is the difference between infection and infestation?
Infection is when a parasite infects a host internally while infestation is when an ectoparasite attaches to or occupies a host externally
Name one factor which determines clinical signs of parasite infections
Host response, number of parasites, size of parasite, duration of infection, where infection takes place, how the parasite feeds
List three types of nematode life cycles
Direct L3, Direct L2 in Egg and Indirect (infective L3 or L1)
Which host harbors larval or immature stages of helminth parasites before becoming infective to the final host? Give an example
What is the name for a disease of animals which is transmissible between animals and humans?
Why are eggs not found in the feces of some animals infected with Spirocerca lupi?
Two-fold: The PPP is 6 months so they could be infected without eggs forming yet or there may not be openings to the granulomas in the esophagus
What are the modes of infection for Ancylostoma caninum?
1. Per Os 2. Transplacental 2. Transmammary, Paratenic 5. Percutaneous
One hookworm species causes a more severe zoonotic condition. What condition and what hookworm species is this?
Cutaneous larval migrans - Ancylostoma braziliense
What are the modes of transmission for Strongyloides stercoralis?
1. Homogonic 2. Hetergonic (infective Percutaneous and Per Os) 3. Prenatial 4. Transmammary
What are the clinical signs for Strongyloides stercoralis?
Diarrhea, URTICARIA, erythematous reaction
What is the zoonotic nature of Strongyloides stercoralis?
Larval stages can penetrate the skin, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals
How can veterinarians diagnose Capillaria in a dog or cat?
Bronchial swab, Urine Sample, Fecal Sample
What is the intermediate host of Echinococcus granulosas and what is its larval stage?
Sheep and humans. Larval stage is the HYDATID CYST
What is the intermediate host of Echinococcus multilocularis and what is its larval stage?
Equine, ruminants, swine, rodents, humans. Larval stage is the ALVEOLAR HYDATID CYST
What is the intermediate host of Dipylidium caninum and what is its larval stage?
Flea or louse. Larval stage is the CYSTCERCOID
What are the second intermediate host and second larval stage of Diphyllobothrium latum?
Second intermediate host is a freshwater fish. Second larval stage is the PLEROCERCOID
Does Spirometra spp infect humans?
Yes, it causes a sparganosis, primarily from eating undercooked frog
What are the 6 "Coathangers"?
Classes Nematoda (Roundworms), Cestoda (Tapeworms), Trematoda (Flukes), Insecta, Archnida and Subkingdom Protozoa
Give 4 characteristics of roundworms
May be free-living or parasitic, sexes are separate (unisexual), shape: UNSEGMENTED, elongated, cylindrical, and alimentary canal IS present
What group of parasites are the most numerous and diverse in veterinary parasitology?
What is a trophozoite?
The stage of a protozoa in the host which feeds and grows until division commences
A sexual stage of reproduction in protozoa is referred to as either _____ or _______.
What are 3 general characteristics of arachnids?
4 sets of legs, palps rather than antennae, body divided into cephalo-thorax and abdomen
What are 3 general characteristics of insects?
3 pairs of legs, a single pair of antennae, body divided into head, thorax and abdomen
What are 3 general characteristics of arthropods?
Hard, chitinous exoskeleton, jointed limbs, segmented body
Phylum arthropoda includes what two classes?
insecta (flies, lice, fleas, etc) and arachnida (ticks, mites)
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