Monomer: amino acid polymer: protein/polypeptide 20 possible amino acids, linear polymers, complex sequences possible
Monomer: simple sugars monosaccharides polymer: polysaccharides numerous sugars with modification. polymer can be branched
Monomer: nucleotide Polymer:polyribonucleic acid, polydeoxyribonucleic acid. 4 possible nucleotides
groups of atoms with specific chemical properties and consistent behavior
Alcohols ex: ethanol. Polar. Hydrogen bonds with water to help dissolve molecules. Enables linkages to other molecules by dehydration.
ex: Acetaldehyde. Important in building molecules and in energy-releasing reactions. C=O group is very reactive.
Ketones ex: Acetone C=O group is important in carbohydrates and energy reactions
ionizable. Carboxylic Acid ex: Acetic Acid. Enters into dehydration synthesis by giving up OH- Ionizes in living tissue to form COO- and H+
Amines, ex: Methylamine. Accepts H+in living tissues to form NH3 and enters dehydration synthesis by giving up H+
molecules with the same chemical formula but atoms are arranged differently
differ in how their atoms are joined together
carbon atom has four different atoms or groups of atoms attached to it.
Functional group of Amino Acids
Carboxyl and Amino. function as both acid and a base. Chiral/assymetrical
amino acid in its right isomeric form
amino acid in its left isomeric form and exists in organisms
Amino acids can be grouped based on side chains Hydrophilic amino acids attract ions of opposite charges +: R, H, K, amines (Arginine, Histidine, lysine) -:D, E, carboxyls (Aspartic Acid, Glutamic Acid)
hydrophilic amino acid with polar but uncharged side chains from hydrogen bonds S, T, Y (OH) (Serine, theronine, Tyrosine N,Q amide Asparagine, Glutamine)