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Chapter Twelve- Byzantine Art Vocabulary

vocabulary from chapter 12, relating to byzantine art.
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neo-platonism
the belief that natural space and realistic qualties are not important; the concern of showing what is eternal (according to plato) instead of naturalism.
martyrium
a shrine to a christian martyr saint
tessera (tesserae)
greek, "cube"
a tiny stone or piece of glass cut to the desired shape and size for use in forming a mosaic
apse
a recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a building, commonly found at the east end of a church
choir
the space reserved for the clergy and singers in the church, usually east of the transept but, in some instances, extending into the nave
nave
the central area of an ancient roman basilica or of a church, demarcated from aisles by piers or columns
narthex
a porch or vestibule of a church, generally colonnaded or arcaded and preceding the nave
chi-rho-iota
(aka christogram)
the three initial letters of Christ's name in greek
monogram of christ
the x extended p sign.
put on shields to represent three groups: the emeror and his staff, the clergy, and the imperial guard
pendentive
a concave, triangular section of a hemisphere, four of which provide the transition from a square area to the circular base of a covering dome. although pendentives appear to be hanging (pendant) from the dome, they in fact support it.
squinch
an architectural device used as a transition from a square to a polygonal or circular base for a dome. it may be composed of lintels, corbels, or arches.
diptych
a two-paneled painting or altarpiece also, an ancient roman, early christian or byzantine hinged writing tablet, often of ivory and carved on the external sides.
theotokos
greek, "she who bore god"
the virgin mary, the mother of jesus
pantokrator
greek, "ruler of all"
christ as ruler and judge of heaven and earth
mandorla
an almond-shaped nimbus surrounding the figure of christ or other sacred figure.
triptych
a three-panneled painting, ivory plaque, or altarpiece. also, a small, portable shrine with hinged wings used for private devotion
orthodox
"right" type of christianity characteristic of the byzantine empire. acknowledged all bishops as equal and did not see the pope as the most powerful (as the roman catholics did)
heresy
belief or opinion contrary to orthodox religious (esp. christian) doctrine
iconoclasm
the destruction of religious or sacred images. in byzantium, the period from 726 - 843 when there was an imperial ban on such images. the destroyers of images were known as iconoclasts
those opposed to this ban were iconophiles
icon
a portrait or image; especially in Byzantine churches, a panel with a painting of sacred personages that are objects of veneration. (in the visual arts, a painting, piece of sculpture, or even a building regarded as an object of veneration)
basilica
in roman architecture, a public building for legal and other civic proceedings, rectangular in plan with an entrance usually on a long side. in christian architecture, a church somewhat resembling the roman basilica, usually entered from one end and with an apse at the other.
ambulatory
a covered walkway, outdoors (as in a church cloister) or indoors; especially the passageway around the apse and the choir of a church.
exedrae
recessed area, usually semicircular
eucharist
in christianity, the partaking of the bread and wine, which believers hold to be either christ himself or symbolic of him
monestary
a group of buildings in which monks live together, set apart from the secular community of a town
monasticism
lifestyle of monks, relating to life in a monestary