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Worlds Together, Worlds apart-chapter 3
Terms in this set (65)
major belief in China; offering food/drink to deceased ancestors for intervention on their behalf
two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicles used in warfare and in processions and races
applying intense heat to bones of cattle/turtle shells and interpreting the cracks that form
code of laws that was written in cuneiform, written for kings as a balancing act of how one should rule
Austronesian's, that expanded into the south pacific, and whose trade did not ingrate the islands into a mainland style culture
city-states of the riverine societies organized around the temple and palace, were autonomous polities
exertion of power over distant hinterlands; an organized centralized kingdom ruled by charismatic rulers-people allied themselves with larger territories over small cities
herder's that were living in close proximity to settled agriculturalists
weaker neighboring states that were forced to become allies that had to pay tribute with luxury goods, raw materials, and manpower for the protection of the ruler of the stronger state
Aryans that wandered into inner Eurasia, descended into the Indus region, singing what would become sacred texts, and sacrificing livestock to their gods. Could speak sanskrit-basis for all other languages
What caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and what other societies collapsed because of it?
Radical changes in climate; the Mesopotamians and the Indus Valley Civiliation
What revolutionary new military weapon was introduced by herders and pastoral nomads?
The horse -drawn chariot
What did the rulers and elitists of different civilizations call the nomads and pastoralists for their brutal use of horse-drawn chariots?
What were the most vital breakthroughs that the pastoralists brought with them?
The harnessing of horses and use of chariots
Pastoralists created the chariot; what did the Agrarians contribute?
Making them lighter, more durable, and more useful in war.
Other than war, what else did horse-drawn chariots improve?
Travel time between capitals
What is the difference between territorial states and city states?
The new territorial states based their authority on monarchs as oppos
What form of writing did the Mesopotamians use?
What form of writing did the Egyptians use?
When did King Tut rule?
The New Kingdom of Egypt
What was different between the Old Kingdom of Egypt and the Middle/New Kingdoms?
In the Old Kingdom, the pharaoh was a mighty ruler. In the Middle/New Kingdoms, the pharaoh's prime responsibility was to be a steward and fulfill the needs of his people.
What region did Egypt colonize to broaden their trade routes and secure coveted resources?
How did Middle Kingdom Egypt end?
The Hyksos invaded. Though, they did not conquer Egypt- they ruled over it and improved it.
How long did the Hyksos rule?
How did the New Kingdom Egypt start?
Ahmosis used the Hyksos' weaponry against them and made himself Pharaoh.
What did the migrants and invaders from the west bring to Egypt with them?
Bronze working, an improved potter's wheel, and a vertical loom.
Why did the Egyptians want to colonize Nubia?
Gold, exotic materials and manpower.
Who was Egypt's most powerful woman ruler and what is her claim to fame?
Hatshepsut; she broadened trade into Nubia, the Levant and Mediterranean.
Which pharaoh commanded the first chariot battle in history, and what was its impact?
Hatshepsut's son, Thutmosis III; it established an Egyptian presence in Palestine.
Where is Anatolia and why was it so sought after?
Anatolia is located in modern-day Turkey; it linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea.
What ruined Mesopotamia's land productivity and what caused people to move?
A millennium of intense land cultivation combined with severe drought. Salt water entered the Euphrates from the Persian Gulf.
What was the name given to the people who conquered Mesopotamian cities?
What did the Amorites eventually do in 2004 BC?
They brought down the Third Dynasty or Ur, and restored order, increased wealth, expanded trade, and founded new kinds of political communities.
What did restored order and prosperity enable the new kings of Babylonia to do?
Nourish a vibrant and cultural society through art and learning.
What is the most famous poem of this time period and who wrote it?
The Epic of Gilgamesh written by the Sumerians.
How did restored prosperity impact the Mesopotamian economy?
It caused a shift away from economic activity dominated by the city-state and toward independent private ventures.
What were taxes paid with?
Grain, vegetables and wool.
What industry powered trade from all over Afro-Eurasia?
Who was the most famous Mesopotamian ruler and what are they known for?
Hammurabi created Hammurabi's Code, which was the first known legal code ever established.
Where was Hammurabi's capital?
How did the Code classify people?
Free people, dependents and slaves
What group took over Mesopotamia after the Hittites?
What group of nomads entered the Indus River Valley and what did they bring with them?
The Aryans (Vedic People) brought with them Sanskrit
What were the Aryans known for?
Being deeply religious
Where did the Aryans settle?
Near the Ganges River
What religion did the Aryans develop?
What two elements aided the Shang success?
Written records and new advances in metallurgy
Why didn't the chariot have as much success in China?
China was already intimidating enough to its neighbors. Chariots were not necessary.
Who defeated the Shang by using chariots?
What are the Shang known for creating and what made it so advanced?
A 12 month 360-day lunar calendar. It helped predict lunar and solar eclipses.
What are fiefs?
Grants of land given by kings and lords to subordinates
What type of government was the Shang dynasty?
A theocracy; the ruler gained his authority from the Mandate of Heaven
What is so special about the writing system of the Shang?
They created the character system that was later used in Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese.
What does "Polynesian" mean?
Belonging to many islands
Which group is usually seen in paintings with shirtless women and where are they located?
The Minoans; in modern-day Crete
Why was Cyprus a main focal point of trade?
It straddled the middle sea-lane, and was rich in copper.
Which city is considered the oldest city in Europe, who lived there, and where was it located?
Knossos was home to the Minoans. It was located in modern-day Crete.
Why were the Mycanaeans so intimidating, and what were they known for?
Their height and their wealth
What happened to the Minoan civilization on Crete?
It was invaded by the Mycenaeans
The chief political innovation that marked the formation of the territorial state was
political power reaching out from the city into the distant hinterland.
The Egyptian deity whom the Middle Kingdom rulers elevated to prominence as a king of the gods was
The Hittites established their dominance in Anatolia when they unified
the chariot aristocracies
Merchants in Mesopotamian kingdoms
sought to lower their risk by creating commercial rules and developing early forms of insurance.
Minoan culture mixed imported and indigenous influences. Which of the following represents an indigenous trait?
Worship of a female deity, known as the "Lady."
Mycenaean palace culture was dependent on
scribes, who recorded the goods and services allocated to local people.
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