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89 terms

Unit 4: Reason and Revolution

Test Flash Cards- World History
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absolutism
a form of government in which all power is rested in a single ruler; no checks and balances
absolute monarch
a king or queen with complete control of their country or empire
divine right
monarchs receive their power from God and are only responsible to God (do not answer to his people)
Philip II (Spain)
1556-1598, spread Catholicism, tried to conquer a lot of land, dug Spain into huge debt and war
Spanish armada
the great fleet sent from Spain against England bu Philip II in 1588
Huguenots
French Protestants of the 1500s and 1600s (Louis XIV)
Cardinal Richelieu
minister of Louis XIII, he spend 18 years strengthening the central government, sought to destroy the power of the Huguenots and nobles- the two groups that didn't bow to royal authority; gave people jobs to tie them to the government
Louis XIII (France)
king of France from 1610-1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu
Louis XIV (France)
1642-1715 (72years) many riots and protesting, he took complete control over gov. when his minister died. He firmly believed in his divine right; never called a meeting of the Estates-General; to strengthen his rule he used to policies of Richelieu; built the French army into the strongest in Europe; supported the arts; spent a lot of resources on wars; revoked the Edict of Nantes making Huguenots flee (most prosperous of his subjects) mainly bad: reduced power of the nobility, fought four wars,greatly increased national debt
intendant
official appointed by French king Louis XIV to govern the provinces, collect taxes, and recruit soldiers
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
finance minister for Louis XIV; imposed mercantilist policies to bolster the economy; his policies helped make France the wealthiest state in Europe
Versailles
royal French residence (palace) and seat of government established by King Louis XIV
Frederick the Great (Prussia)
1740-1786; many military victories and defeats; encouraged religious freedom (for economic diversity); brought Prussia great power and wealth, increased military strength and doubled land
Peter the Great (Russia)
1689-1725; made a play army (skillful); deprived church of independence, modernized Russia (westernized) visited Europe and was impressed; he was autocratic because Russians didn't want to change their ways so he had to rule with ultimate authority; he passed laws that helped nobles so they would be on his side; he tortured and executed rebels; wanted warm water port (unsuccessful); fought Great Northern War: lost first time won second (against Swedish); made Russia biggest country
boyars
a landowning noble in Russia under the tsars; were forced by Peter to serve the state in civilian or military positions
westernization
adoption of western ideas, technology, and culture
St. Petersburg
capital city and major port that Peter the Great established in 1703; magnificent and expensive
Catherine the Great (Russia)
Peter's successor; wife of assassinated tsar; worked to bring Russia full into European cultural and political life; she was a ruthless monarch: took firm action to repress rebels; was determined to expand borders (gained warm water port from Ottoman Empire) took over parts of Poland
James I (England)
successor of Elizabeth I (relative- the king of Scotland) 1603;he was not as popular or skillful with Parliament; He agreed to rule according to English laws and customs but repeatedly clashed with Parliament over money and foreign policies
Charles I (England)
inherited throne in 1625 form James I; behaved like an absolute monarch; Parliament made him sign the Petition of Right; but he dissolved Parliament soon after; didn't use Parliament for 11 years but then needed it in 1640 for funds to suppress Scottish rebellion, they refused and launched own rebellion (started English Civil War) first executed monarch
Petition of Right
a document that prohibited the king from raising taxes without Parliament's consent, or from jailing anyone without legal justification. (Charles I ignored it for 11 years)
Puritans
a group of dissenters- Protestants who differed with Church of England; sought to "purify" the Church of Catholic practices; called for simpler church without bishops. (James I rejected their demands) on Oliver Cromwell's side (Roundheads)
parliament
a group of people that made decisions with the king (on Oliver Cromwell's side)
English Civil War
fought against the Cavaliers and Roundheads because of their opposing views; ended with the king being put on trial and executed
Oliver Cromwell
led the Roundheads; organized a "New Model Army"- ranked by skill rather than social class; won the war; leader of the Commonwealth; later took the title "Lord Protector"; ruled as a virtual dictoator through the army; banned 'fun' stuff with Puritans; oppressed Levellers and Catholics
Cavaliers
supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War (wealthy nobles) this side lost
Roundheads
the names for the forces of Parliament in the English Civil War (called this because their hair was cut short around their heads) this side won
English Commonwealth
the name of England (now republic) after the English Civil War under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell; supporters of Charles II (uncrowned heir) challenged the Commonwealth but Cromwell crushed the uprising; Catholics were exiled; fun banned; it all ended when Cromwell died; Charles II followed
Levellers
group that thought that poor men should have as much to say in government as the gentry, lawyers and other citizens (during the Commonwealth)
Charles II (England)
followed the Commonwealth (the Restoration); popular ruler; got rid of the strict Puritan laws (boring ones); reestablished Church of England; accepted the Petition of Right but believed in absolute monarchy; eventually dissolved Parliament; secretly Catholic
James II (England)
successor of Charles II (his brother) (the Restoration); openly Catholic; angered subjects by randomly suspending laws and appointing Catholics to high office (subjects mostly Protestant); dissolved Parliament; fled to France when William and Mary came (Glorious Revolution)
William and Mary
Mary: James II Protestant daughter married to William: Protestant, Dutch king
became the rulers of England after James II (Glorious Revolution) (get asked to by subjects); signed the English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights
series of acts passed by the English Parliament in 1689 that limited the rights of the monarchy and ensured the superiority of Parliament; accepted by William and Mary
limited monarchy
government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's powers
natural law/natural rights
rules of conduct discoverable by reason/ right that belongs to all humans from birth, such as life, liberty, and property
Thomas Hobbes
1588-1679; English; wrote "Leviathan"; thought humans born evil and selfish and needed a strong central authority to control disorder; believed in social contract; had a secular justification for absolute monarchy
John Locke
1632-1704; English; wrote "Two Treaties on Government"; thought people are naturally reasonable, moral; believed in natural rights and that people had the right to overthrow their government if maltreated.
social contract
an agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
philosophe
French for "philosopher"; French thinker who desired reform in society during the Enlightenment
salon
informal social gathering at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Baron de Montesquieu
1689-1755; French; wrote "Spirit of the Laws"; believed in the separaation of powers between legislative (commons), judicial (aristocracy) and executive (monarchy) also checks and balances
Voltaire
1694-1778; French; wrote "Candite"; attacked the "Old Regime"; critic of the Catholic Church; separation of church and state; thought enlightenment monarch could institute reform; religious toleration and freedom of speech
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1712-1788; French; wrote "Social Contract"; people are naturally good; informal contract among the people themselves; importance of education; state represents the good will of the state; limited government, ruled by educated
laissez faire
policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
ancien régime
old order; system of government in pre-revolution France
estates
social class
French Revolution: First Estate- clergy, Second Estate- nobles, Third Estate- bourgeoisie, peasants, and city workers
bourgeoisie
the middle class (French Revolution) part of the Third Estate
Louis XV
bad monarch: continued to increase debt (after Louis XIV), debauchery at court, fought Seven Years' War (Bristish vs. French, Austrians and Russians), lost land in New France
Louis XVI
weak leader, frivolous activities (hunted during starvation period), France was almost bankrupt, people disliked wife (Marie Antoinette)
Jacques Necker
Financial Minister in France; needed new source of revenue during increasing debt: suggests property taxes on all estates
Estates-General
legislative body made up of representatives of the three estates in pre-Revolutionary France
cahier
notebook used during the French Revolution to record grievances
Tennis Court Oath
famous oath made on a tennis court by members of the Third Estate in France; vowed not to leave until France had a constitution
Bastille
fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789
Declaration of Rights
outlined basic freedoms held by all; speech, assembly, religion, no arbitrary arrest and punishment; asserted the sovereignty of the people (as a first step to writing a constitution)
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
issued in 1790 (France); made bishops and priests become elected, salaried officials; ended papal authority over the French Church; dissolved convents and monasteries; many bishops and priests refused to accept it (made by National Assembly)
"Great Fear"
caused by rumors; spread panic; peasants unleashed their fury on nobles; they set fire to old manor records and stole grain from storehouses (in France)
Olympe de Gouges
a woman journalist that was mad that the Declaration of Rights of Man didn't grant equal citizenship to women; demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen; later was imprisoned and then executed
Marie Antoinette
Austrian born queen; married to Louis XVI; subjects hated her because of her 'fake' servant life; led an extravagant and expensive life
émigré
person who flees his or her country for political reasons
sans-culotte
working-class man or woman who made the French Revolution more radical; called such because he or she wore long trousers instead of the fancy knee breeches that the upper class wore
republic
system of government in which officials are chosen by the people
Reign of Terror
time period during the French Revolution from September 1793 to July 1794 when people in France were arrested for not supporting the revolution and many were executed
Jacobins
member of a radical political club during the French Revolution; made the National Convention
guillotine
device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading
Maximilien Robespierre
a shrewd lawyer and politician that quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety; nicknamed "the incorruptible" because of his selfless dedication to the revolution; believed like Rousseau; hated the old regime; used terror; base of the Reign of Terror; got arrested and then executed
suffrage
right to vote
Directory
after the Reign of Terror; was set up by the Constitution of 1795; made up of 5-man house; weak but dictatorial; faced growing discontent; turned to Napoleon
nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Napoleon Bonaparte
popular military hero; military seized power, destroyed Directory; formed the Consulate;
good: Louisiana Purchase; Napoleon Code; National bank, collected taxes, set up new schools
bad: French Empire unable to conquer Britain; Continental System failed; suffers major defeat in Russia and the against the Grand Alliance (Austria, Prussia, Britain and Russia)
Consulate
created Constitution of Year VIII; headed by 3 consuls: Napoleon was 1st consul but then took complete control of government; then made himself consul for life; then crowned himself emperor
Napoleon Code
body of French civil laws introduced in 1804; served as model for many nations' civil codes; forbade privledges based on birth; freedom of religion; government jobs go to most qualified
Continental System
blockade designed by Napoleon to hurt Britain economically by closing European ports to British goods; ultimately unsuccessful
Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon just came back form being exiled; day-long war against British and Prussian forces under the command of the Duke of Wellington and General Blücher; Napoleon exiled again after
Congress of Vienna
assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic era to piece Europe back together; met from September 1814 to June 1815 (redrew a map of Europe)
peninsulares
members of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas
creoles
person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers
mestizos
person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was of Native American and European descent
mulattoes
in Spain's colonies in the Americas, person who was of African and European descent
Simón Bolívar
(Venezuelan) a young creole who traveled to Europe during the French Revolution and was inspired by the ideas of "liberty, equality, and fraternity"; by 1808 saw Spain as weak (because of Napoleon) and took the opportunity to reject foreign domination and demand independence from colonial rule; was exiled twice; came up with plan to attack Spanish at Bogotá (led army there); more victories; called :the liberator"
Toussaint L'Ouverture
led the revolt in Haiti of the slaves; had French, Spanish and British armies after them because of land; won; slavery was abolished and owned most of the land; Napoleon tried to reconquer but had to agree to a truce; Toussaint was captured; French surrendered; got renamed Haiti; then a republic
Father Miguel Hidalgo
a creole priest in Mexico; said the "Grito": called Mexicans to fight for independence; got a small army together even some creoles but then they dropped out; some early successes; Hidalgo captured and executed (followers scattered)
Father José Morelos
a metizo priest (Mexican); 4 years he led rebel forces before he was captured and shot in 1815
José de San Martín
a creole (Argentinian) went to Europe for military training (general) helped Argentina win victory from Spain; helped other places too; defeated the Spanish in Chile and Peru
Rise of Absolutism
Decline of Feudalism- the power of lords and knights decreased
Decline of the Catholic- people's loyalty goes towards the king and queen because the church is questioned
Growth of the Middle Class/City-life-when you have a large metropolitan area you need someone to control it, the church isn't so they turn toward the king
Constant Warfare- during the time of war you need a leader to plan everything, so king steps up to unify his people to fight in the war
Social Fragmentation- you are born a serf, knight or lord but not anymore the social make up of Europe changed after the Renaissance so people needed a unified leader
Establishment of Foreign Colonies- the places people find then make colonies and they have to give credit to someone: the king, you need someone to look up to, also fund the voyages
Glorious Revolution
when James II fled to France when William and Mary came with army (no blood shed)
The French Revolution
Phase 1: Estates-General, National Assembly, Storming of Bastille
Phase 2: Legislative Assembly, Declaration of Rights, National Convention
Phase 3: Reign of Terror
Phase 4: Directory
Phase 5: Napoleon/ End of Revolution
Impact of French Revolution
sparked nationalist feelings and abolished the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the creation of Germany. Napoleon's decision to sell the Louisiana Territory doubled the size of the United States and ushered in an age of American expansion
Impact of Congress of Vienna
restored stability and order in Europe; established a balance of power; redrew the map of Europe