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Olfactory & gustatory impulses travel not only to the ________________, but also the _______________

Cerebral cortex; limbic system

Define: Limbic system

A complex system of nerves and networks in the brain that controls the basic emotions and drives

Which is stronger? Olfaction or gustatory?


The olfactory epithelium is located in the ____________.

Superior part of the nasal cavity
(surface of the cribriform plate & extending along the superior nasal concha)

Olfactory epithelium = 3 types of cells

1. Olfactory receptor
2. Supporting columnar epithelial cells
3. Basal cells

Olfactory receptor is a _________ neuron with ___________ (olfactory hairs). These receptors respond to _________ molecules

bipolar; cilia; odorant

Supporting columnar epithelial cells provide _____ and ______

Support; nourishment

Basal cells are ______ cells that replace olfactory _______ (replaced ________ly)

Stem; receptors; month

Olfactory cascade of events (5 steps)

Odorant binds → G-protein & cAMP produced & released → opening of Na+ channels → Inflow of Na+ → Action potentials

Pathway of olfactory nerve impulses

2 olfactory nerves → olfactory bulbs → olfactory tract → Cortex's PRIMARY OLFACTORY AREA (temporal lobe)

Olfaction is the only sensory system that has _________ cortical projections. Does not go through the ________ (relay station)

direct; thalamus

Olfactory supporting cells & glands are innervated by the ______ nerve (CN _____)

Facial; VII

Parasympathetic motor innervation to _______ glands & the ___________ in the nasal cavity is provided by the CN _______ or ______ nerve.

lacrimal; mucous membrane; VII; facial

The five primary tastes of gustation are:

1. Sweet
2. Sour
3. Bitter
4. Salty
5. Umami

The taste buds are located on the _________, _________, ___________ & ___________

Tongue; soft palate; pharynx; larynx

Each taste bud consists of about ___ gustatory receptor cells


_______ cells located near the CT base _______ and differentiate, first becoming _____ cells, then ______ _______ cells inside the taste buds.

Basal; multiply; supporting; gustatory receptor

Each gustatory receptor cell has a single, long ______, called a ___________ hair, which projects through the ________.

microvillus; gustatory; taste pre

Each gustatory receptor cell has a lifespan of about _____________

10 days

4 different types of papillae:

1. Vallate papillae
2. Fungiform papillae
3. Foliate papillae
4. Filiform papillae

Vallate papillae: amt, size, formation, found where, # taste buds each?

12; Very large; form a row; back of the tongue; 100-300

Fungiform papillae: shape, found where, # taste buds each

Mushroom; all over scattered; 5

Foliate papillae: found where? Last how long?

Small trenches on the lateral margins of the tongue; most degenerate in early childhood

Filiform papillae: Contain ___ but not _____. Fnx?

tactile receptors; no taste buds
Incr friction btw tongue and food (easier to manipulate food)

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