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the government makes and enforces its own laws without approval from any other authority
often used for state, but it really means a sizable group of people who believe themselves united by common bonds of race, language, custom, or religion
the institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all its residents
Social Contract Theory
people surrendered their freedom to the state, but in return they received order and security
divides the powers of the government between the national and state or provincial government
a plan that provides the rules for government; sets out ideals that the people bound by the constitution believe in and share; establishes the basic structure of government and defines the powers and duties; provides the supreme law for the country
a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the powers of those who govern
generally large industries and advanced technology that provide a more comfortable way of life than developing nations have
special type of single-ruler government where the ruler attempts to control the total society
the head of state is not a king or queen and voters elect representatives to run the nation's government
a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
an economic system in which the freedom of choice and individual incentive are emphasized
the government placed no limits on the freedom of buyers and sellers to make economic decisions
an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production, determines the use of resources, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as education, health care, and welfare
there would be only one class, the working class; all property would be held in common and there would be no need or a government
government in which the people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
establishing that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the US shall be the supreme Law of the Land
the power of the courts to say that laws and actions of local, state, or national governments are invalid because they are unconstitutional
final enumerated power; lets Congress stretch its powers to meet situations the Founders couldn't anticipate
departments and agencies of the federal government, mostly in the executive branch
belief that the court should avoid taking the initiative on social and political issues
the Court should actively help settle the difficult social and political questions of the day
a process that extended the protections of the Bill of Rights against the actions of state and local governments
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