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81 terms

Government Ch. 1,2,3 Vocab

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State
identifies a political community in a precise territory
Sovereignty
the government makes and enforces its own laws without approval from any other authority
Nation
often used for state, but it really means a sizable group of people who believe themselves united by common bonds of race, language, custom, or religion
Nation-State
a country in which the territory of both the nation and the state coincide
Consensus
agreement about basic beliefs and values, usually have stable governments
Government
the institution through which a state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all its residents
Evolutionary Theory
the state evolved from the family
Force Theory
the state would not exist except for the need to resist an enemy
Divine Right Theory
certain people are chosen by a god or gods to rule
Social Contract Theory
people surrendered their freedom to the state, but in return they received order and security
Unitary System
gives all key powers to the central government
Federal System
divides the powers of the government between the national and state or provincial government
Confederacy
a loose union of independent states
Constitution
a plan that provides the rules for government; sets out ideals that the people bound by the constitution believe in and share; establishes the basic structure of government and defines the powers and duties; provides the supreme law for the country
Constitutional Government
a government in which a constitution has authority to place clearly recognized limits on the powers of those who govern
Preamble
statement that sets forth the goals and purposes that the government will serve
Constitutional Law
the field of law that studies questions on how to interpret the Constitution
Politics
the effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government
Industrialized Nations
generally large industries and advanced technology that provide a more comfortable way of life than developing nations have
Developing Nations
only beginning to develop industrially
Autocracy
the system of government in which one person has all the authority and power to rule
Monarchy
another form of government in which one person has great power and inherits the power
Totalitarianism
special type of single-ruler government where the ruler attempts to control the total society
Oligarchy
any system of government in which a small group holds power
Democracy
a system of government in which rule is by the people
Demos
the people
Kratia
rule
Republic
the head of state is not a king or queen and voters elect representatives to run the nation's government
Political Party
a group of individuals with broad common interests who organize to nominate candidates for office, win elections, conduct government, and determine public policy
Free Enterprise
the freedom of private business to operate with minimal government regulation
Economics
the study of how limited resources are used to satisfy people's seemingly unlimited wants
Capitalism
an economic system in which the freedom of choice and individual incentive are emphasized
Free Market
the government placed no limits on the freedom of buyers and sellers to make economic decisions
Laissez-Faire
the government should leave the economy alone as much as possible
Socialism
an economic system in which the government owns the basic means of production, determines the use of resources, distributes the products and wages, and provides social services such as education, health care, and welfare
Proletariat
industrial working class; workers who produce the goods
Bourgeoisie
capitalists who own the means of production
Communism
there would be only one class, the working class; all property would be held in common and there would be no need or a government
Command Economy
an economic system in which the government controls the factors of production
Limited Government
the concept that the monarch's power, or government, was limited, not absolute
Representative Government
government in which the people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
Separation of Powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Revenue
the money a government collects from taxes or other sources
Embargo
an agreement prohibiting trade
Ratified
approving
Unicameral
single chamber legislature
Ceded
yielded
Ordinances
laws that set out how the lands would be organized
Interstate Commerce
trade among the states
Extralegal
not sanctioned by law
Anarchy
political disorder
Articles
divisions of the constitution
Jurisdiction
authority of the Supreme Court and other Federal Courts to rule on cases
Supremacy Clause
establishing that the Constitution, laws passed by Congress, and treaties of the US shall be the supreme Law of the Land
Amendments
changes
Popular Sovereignty
rule by the people
Federalism
power is divided between national and state governments
Checks and Balances
each branch of government exercises some control over the others
Vetoing
the President's check on Congress, "rejecting"
Judicial Review
the power of the courts to say that laws and actions of local, state, or national governments are invalid because they are unconstitutional
Expressed Powers
powers directly stated in the Constitution
Enumerated Powers
powers specified by number
Elastic Clause
final enumerated power; lets Congress stretch its powers to meet situations the Founders couldn't anticipate
Federal Bureaucracy
departments and agencies of the federal government, mostly in the executive branch
Ratified
approved
Petition
appeal
Balanced Budget
federal spending cannot exceed its income
Impeach
accuse federal officials
Treaty
an agreement between nations, requires Senate approval
Executive Agreements
made between heads of states and doesn't require any approval
Judicial Restraint
belief that the court should avoid taking the initiative on social and political issues
Judicial Activism
the Court should actively help settle the difficult social and political questions of the day
Incorporation Doctrine
a process that extended the protections of the Bill of Rights against the actions of state and local governments
Prior Restraint
government cannot censor information before it is published or broadcast
Probable Cause
reasonable basis to believe a person or premises are linked to a crime
Search Warrant
orders signed by a judge describing the place to be searched for specific items
Arrest Warrant
orders signed by a judge naming the person to be arrested for a specific crime
Due Process
no one can be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
Eminent Domain
the power of the government to take private property for public use
Lame Ducks
outgoing officials who had little influence and accomplished little
Poll Taxes
taxes that are paid in order to vote