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79 terms

Crime Scene Investigation

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How do you collect a bloody knife?
Cardboard box
How do you collect a accelerant canister?
Large plastic container with a sealed lid
How do you collect a paper that smells like gasoline?
Small plastic Ziploc bag
How do you collect a strand of hair?
Extra-small paper envelope
How do you collect a handwritten note?
Medium paper bag
Inductive Reasoning
Using experiences, skills, and observation to draw a conclusion/generalization (NOT GOOD)

Ex: If 12 desks in the room are made of wood, then all of the desks in the room are made of wood
Deductive Reasoning
Applying a conclusion/generalization to a specific example

Ex: If all of the desks in the room are made of wood, then the one with the carved initials on it is also made of wood
Abductive Reasoning
One seeks to explain relevant evidence by beginning with some commonly well known facts that are already accepted and then working towards an explanation.

Ex: If 1000 crime scenes have evidence left behind from the perpetrator, then ALL crime scenes have evidence left behind from the perpetrator, and therefore, next week's crime scene will have evidence left behind from the perpetrator
The most successful and effective crime scene investigators have..
1) Open-mindedness
2) Free-thinking skills
3) Healthy Skepticism
What do most successful and effective crime scene investigators not have?
Tunnel-vision
The dialog that lawyers engage in with prospective jurors to determine if they are competent to serve in a trial is:
Voire Dire
What is Voire Dire?
A preliminary examination of prospective jurors or witnesses under oath to determine their competence or suitability
What is the most essential safety concern that investigators have while processing a bloody crime scene?
AIDS/HIV and Hepatitis B
When are toxic gases and fluids a primary concern for investigators?
While investigating a clandestine drug lab
Which of the following is not one of the required methods of documenting a crime scene?

a) photography/videography
b) sketches
c) voice recording
d) notes
Voice Recording
What is the purpose for closely documenting a crime scene? (name 3)
1) To be certain that all evidence has been collected
2) For use during the criminal trial
3) For crime scene reconstruction
When collecting biological evidence, how should you package it?
First, air dry completely, then package it in a breathable container/bag
When collecting trace evidence, how should you package it?
Use tape and adhere it to an index card for future analysis
When collecting arson/explosive evidence, how should you package it?
Immediately seal it in an air-tight canister
Besides collecting evidence samples from the crime scene, you must also collect ___________ samples for comparison
Control
For a judge to sign a warrant there must be...
A probable cause
What is the DNA evidence database called?
CODIS: Combined DNA Index System
What is the Fingerprint evidence database called?
AFIS: Automatic Fingerprint Identification System
What is the Firearms evidence database called?
GRCF: General Rifling Characteristics File
What database is used for comparing violent crimes such as serial murder and/or sexual assault?
VICAP: Violent Criminal Apprehension Program
When an eye-witness gives their account of what took place during a crime, this is called
Testimonial Evidence
"You have the right to remain silent" is an example of
Miranda Rights
This person must establish his or her credibility in court through credentials, background, and experience; or they may not be allowed to testify
Expert Witness
The "general acceptance" test for evidence refers to
The Frye standard
What is the Frye standard?
scientific evidence presented to the court must be interpreted by the court as "generally accepted" by a meaningful segment of the associated scientific community
What are two requirements of evidence admitted into court according to Daubert Ruling?
1) The method of testing is peer reviewed
2) The evidence has a measurable error rate
What is the Daubert standard?
An updated revision of the Frye Standard for scientific validity, which implicitly declares classical definition of the scientific method

1) Testify
2) Peer-reviewed
3) Rate of Error must be given (Exception to rule #3: Fingerprints are the oldest for of evidence)
The standard used today by which evidence is judged and determined whether admitted into court is
The Daubert standard
The written record of who has possession of the evidence at all times is called the
Chain-of-Custody
What is chain-of-custody?
A written record of all people who have had possession of an item of evidence.

It is to ensure validity and avoid contaminations so they should know what person touched evidence and how they handled it
The most reliable form of evidence is
Eye-witness
Which of the following is an example of a control sample?

a) DNA from the crime scene
b) Stray hair on victim's body
c) Fiber from a suspect's sweater
d) Fingerprint from the doorknob at the crime scene
Stray-hair from victim's body
When arriving to a crime scene as the first responder, your first step is to __________.
Secure and isolate the crime scene
What would allow investigators to enter a house without a search warrant? (2 things)
1) A glove in the car parked outside
2) Blood on an outside doorknob
A knife with the victim's blood and the suspect's fingerprints on it are considered 2 types of evidence...
Physical and Testimonial
O.J Simpson: What time did the murders "most likely" occur?
10:15pm
O.J Simpson: How do we know the approximate time of the murders?
Neighbors heard dog cries
What time was O.J "unaccounted for"? (After he had dinner with Kaelin up until he opened the door for Allan Park)
9:45pm-11:30pm
Motive
A reason to commit the crime
Means
The ability (weapon, tool, strength)
Opportunity
A time (Alibi) to commit the crime (piece of evidence that one was elsewhere)
First Responder
Has to secure the crime scene by getting barricades, putting yellow tape around, along with orange cones, and getting police officers
Crime Scene Investigator
Has to take notes, take photographs, and sketch what the scene is like. They also have to collect all the evidence that is presented. They have to make sure that they wear gloves, so that it doesn't get contaminated.
O.J Simpson: Describe one reason why the glove was discredited as evidence
"If it doesn't fit, you must aquit!" - Johnny Cocheran
O.J Simpson: Describe one reason why the sock was discredited as evidence
Blood smeared inside the sock and was contaminated
O.J Simpson: Describe one reason why the blood on the back gate of Nicole Brown Simpson's condominium was discredited
The blood does not prove that O.J had actually murdered her. The blood was also left there a while after the crime scene took place.
Explain what justified Furman in entering O.J's estate without a warrant
Mark Furman saw blood on O.J's white bronco
Describe one of the mistakes made by Dennis Fung (Crime Scene Investigaor) while collecting evidence in this case
Dennis did not wear gloves while collecting the evidence from Rockingham Estate and Bundy Drive and threw them in the trunk of his car for a few days
O.J Simpson: Detective/Investigators
1) Tom Lang
2) Phill Vanhatter
3) Dennis Fung
4) Mark Furman
Forensic Science
Is the study of science to the matters of law
Sprial
Outdoors, wooded area
Quadrant/zone
Car/Vehicle
Grid
Indoor room/warehouse
Strip/line
Open field
What to look for in a breaking and entering crime scene
Window glass, paint, tool marks from items within suspects pocession
Expert Witness
Specially trained to testify in court (Medical Examiner, Blood Spatter Expert)
What to look for in a homicide crime scene
Victims, suspects, others that have been in contact
What to look for in a hit-n-run accident crime scene
Glass, paint, plastic, tire prints from suspect's car
What to look for in a sexual assault case crime scene
Get control samples, victims, suspects, and sexual partner
Miranda Rights
A requirement to warn an arrested suspect of certain rights guaranteed by the constitution

1) Right to remain silent
2) Anything you say can and will be against you
3) Right to an attorney
4) If you answer questions without an attorney you have the right to stop
Circumstantial Evidence
Evidence that is based on inference, rather than personal knowledge or observation. This type of evidence does not prove guilt.
Crime Reconstruction
Building the crime scene to see how it happened
How will you conduct your search? (name 3)
1) Find the location of the crime scene
2) See the size of the crime
3) Vehicle searches
O.J Simpson: The Attorneys
Prosecution: Marcia Clark and Christopher Darden

Defense: "The Dream Team"
Robert Kardashain, Robert Shapiro, F. Lee Bailey, Johnny Chochran, Barry Scheck, Dr. Henry C. Lee (witness)
O.J Simpson: The Judge
Lance A. Ito
Distance between Rockingham Estate (O.J) and Bundy Drive (Nicole)
1.97 miles (7 minutes away from Nicole's house by car)
Evidence in Bundy
. Left hand leather glove
. Bruno Mali Size 12 shoe
. Knit cap with strand of hair
. White envelope w/ glasses
. Blood in back gate
. Blood droplets left of shoe prints
. Fibers from O.J's socks
Evidence in Rockingham
. Right leather glove
. Blood on white bronco
. Blood inside of bronco
. Sock with victim's blood
Year of O.J Simpson Murder
June 12, 1994
NCIC
National Crime Information Center
O.J Simpson: The Witnesses (5 ppl)
1) Kato Kaelin (house guest)
2) Alan Park (limo driver)
3) Neighbors on Bundy Drive
4) Jill Shively (near condo)
5) Allen Wattenberg (ross cutlery owner)
O.J Simpson: Victims
Nicole Brown (wife) and Ronald Goldman (friend)
What went wrong with evidence?
Gloves: "If it doesn't fit you must aquit"
Sock: Blood went through to inside layer (smeared) and contaminated>>could not be presented in court
Blood: High levels of preservative EDTA>> indicated lab sample
Conclusions to the case
O.J was acquitted without taking a stand. Double Jeopardy which meant he wouldn't be back for this case again. Wrote a book about if he did the murder.