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AP EURO 26
Terms in this set (67)
German emperor who forced Bismarck to resign in 1890 and refused to renew the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty, prompting republican France to court absolutist Russia with loans, arms, and friendship and in 1894 become military allies, creating two rival blocs in Europe
The alliance if Austria, Germany, and Italy. Italy left the alliance when war broke out in 1914 on the grounds that Austria had launched a war of aggression
First Moroccan Crisis
This was a Brinksmanship tatic (in which Germany professed its opposition to the French want to occupy Morocco) by William II to disunify France and Great Britian, in reality this further solidified the relation between France and England
The alliance of Great Briatain, France, and Russia in the First World War
Germany's decision to add a large, enormously expensive fleet of ___ to its already expanding ____ heightened tensions between them and Britian. Saw it as a legit right of a great world power and national pride
mood of 1914
the attiudes and convictions of Europeans around 1914
the popular approval of military institutions and their values
Commerical rivalry in world markets between Germany and Great Britain increased sharply in the 1890's, as Germany becane a great ubdystruak oiwer. Germany's ambitious pursuit of colonies further threatened British interests. Germany's decision to expand greatly its battle fleet posed a challenge to Britain's long-standing naval supremecy
The Archduke of Austria-Hungary in the early 1900s who was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo, Bosnia, sparking WWI. This occurred during a state visit to the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo
Member of a terrorist organization called The Black Hand. Helped to end the optimistic Progressive era in America. Murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. Wanted to set Bosnia free from Austria-Hungary. Was successful after failed attempts to bomb the archduke's motorcade
the tinderbox of Europe
War in the Balkans seemed inevitable because between 1900-1914, the Western powers had successfully forced the Ottoman rulers to give up their European territories. Ethnic nationalism inspired by changing state boundaries was destroying the Ottoman Empire and threatening Austria-Hungary
First Balkan War
1912 -Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire and then quarreled with Bulgaria over the spoils of victory--a dispute that led in 1913 to the Second Balkan War
Second Balkan War
1913- Bulgaria attacked its former allies. Austria intervened and forced Serbia to give up Albania.
Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
chancellor of Germany at start of war. Hoped that Great Britain would remain neutral, unwilling to fight a war for Russia in the distant Balkans. Sent a telegram of Austria-Hungary that promised Germany's unconditional support in case of war. These actions encouraged prowar faction in Vienna to take a hard line against the Serbs
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Failed German plan calling for a lightning attack through neutral Belgium and a quick defeat of France before turning on Russia
A diplomatic crisis among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that led to the First World War.
A war in which distinctions between the soldiers on the battlefield and civilians at home are blurred, and where the government plans and controls ecomonic social life in order to supply the amries at the front with supplies and weapons
This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war. Termed the phrase "total war"
Battle of the Marne
saved France in 1914. French counterattacked Germans and the Germans retreated. British forced them to retreat further. Ended the Schlieffen Plan and the offensive war imagined by the Germans.
A type of fighting used in World War I behind rows of trenches, mines, and barbed wire; the cost in lives was staggering and the gains in territory minimal
Battle of the Somme
A great British offensive undertaken in the summer of 1916 in northern France, exemplified the horros of trench warfare. 420,000 British, 200,000 French, and 600,000 Germans killed/wounded defending insignifcant piece of land
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. Italy joined the Triple Entente
local Slavs were seen as savages and ethnic "mongrels" who were unable to work like "other, more joyously productive races." 1/3 of civilian population was killed or became refugees and horses, herds of cattle, and pigs were used to supply the army.
the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries
Battle of Gallipoli
British forces tried and failed to take the Dardanelles and Constantinople from the Ottoman Turks. The invasion force was pinned down on the beaches. 10 month long battle
direct descendant of the prophet Muhammad, sharif of Mecca; refused to follow Ottoman's orders for holy war against Brits and then allied with Brits to win independence with T.E. Lawrence
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare. Caused U.S. to enter WW I
talented Jewish industrialist in charge of Germany's largest electric company, convinced the government to set up the War Raw Materials Board to ration and distribute raw materials.
Auxiliary Service Law
a German law requiring all males between the ages of seventeen and sixty to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort
Radical socialist leader attack the costs of the war effort in Berlin. Was immediately arrested and imprisoned but electrified Europe's far left
(1916) in the midst of WWI while British were distracted, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin over the delay in home-rule during Easter week; aroused nationalist Irish support
In France, he established a virtual dictatorship, pouncing on strikers and jailing without trial journalists and politicians who dared to suggest a compromise peace with Germany
French leader of the Vichy republic of France, which was essentially Nazi France. He is seen as a traitor to his people by some Frenchman.
the revolution against the Czarist government which led to the abdication of Nicholas II and the creation of a provisional government in March 1917
Battle of Caporetto
Where Austrians and Germans launched a major offensive against the Italian position. Italians retreated in disarray.
Emperor of Austria following Ferdinand's abdication in 1848. Generally out of his time. Responsible for dual-monarchy. Died in 1916
Campaigned against constitutional reform and supported an annexationist peace
German Communist Party
a group of radical socialists who were unhappy with the moderate policies of the Social Democrats; tried to seize power in Berlin
national parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution.
Parties ranging from conservative to moderate socialist formed the __________, which called for a completely new government responsible to the Duma instead of the Tsar. In response, Nicholas II temporarily adjourned the Duma.
An uneducated Siberian preacher whose influence with the tsarina Alexandra (Nicholas II's wife) rested on his purported healing powers. Claimed he could stop Alexandra's only son's disease, the rare blood disease hemophilia. Was murdered in 1916, December
Unplanned uprisings accompanied by vilent street demonstartions begun in March 1917 (old calendar february) in Petrograd, Russia, that led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a provisional government
An agrarian socialist who became prime minister of Russia. He refused to confiscate land holdings to give them to peasants and felt that continuation of war was most important.
A huge, fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals modeled on the revolutionary soviets of 1905
Army order No. 1
a radical order of the Petrograd soviet that stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks. He was a Russian revolutionary, a communist politician, the main leader of the October Revolution, the first head of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic and from 1922, the first de facto leader of the Soviet Union. He was the creator of ___, an extension of Marxist theory.
Lenin's radical, revolutionary arm of the Russian party of Marxian socialism, which successfully installed a dictorial socialsit regime in Russia. "Majority group" later would be called Communists
Lead the Bolsheviks of Russian along side Lenin. He was a spellbinding revolutionary orator and independent racial Marxist, who brilliantly executed the Bolshevik seizure of power by convincing the Petrograd Soviet to form a special military-revolutionary committee and make him its leader. His soldiers joined with the Bolsheviks to overtake members of the provisional government and win the vote of the Congress of soviets. He was also leader of the Red Army in the civil war.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Peace treaty signed in MArch 1918 between the Central Powers and Russia that ceded Russian territories containing a thrid of the Russian empire's population to the Central Powers
Russians who opposed Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
The Soviet Army during the Russian Civil War. Trotsky's leadership was decisive and became war commissar of the newly formed ____. Re-established strict discipline and the draft and formed a disciplined and effective fighting force.
the application of centralized state control during the Russian civil war, in which the Bolsheviks seized gain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work
Secret police set up by Lenin-arrested "enemies of the revolution".Dedicated to suppressing counter-revolutionaries of all types. Imprisoned and executed tens of thousands without trial. Red Terror helped establish this secret police
Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.
1920 armed conservative insurrection that temporarily caused the German government to flee and resulted in workers' strikes; repressed by the central government
Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 peace settlement that ended war between Germany and the Allied powers
Wilson's 1918 peace proposal calling for open diplomacy, a reduction in armaments, freedom of commerce and trade, the establishment of the League of Nations, and national self-determination
League of Nations
A permanent organization established during the 1919 Paris peace conference, designed to protect member states from aggression and avert furture wars
The notion that people should be able to live free from outside interference in nations with cleary defined borders, and should be able to choose their own national governments through democratic majority-rule elections
The Big Three
Controlling powers at the conference were: the U.S., Great Britain, and France. Germany, A-H, and Russia were excluded from the conference
war guilt clause
An article in the Treaty of Versailles that declared that Germany (with Austria) was solely responsible for the war and had to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the fighting
Henry Cabot Lodge
was a Republican who disagreed with the Versailles Treaty, and who was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. He mostly disagreed with the section that called for the League to protect a member who was being threatened.
the 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France that divided up the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, and southern Turkey (France) and Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq (Britain)
A 1917 British statement that declared British support of a National Home for the Jewish People in Palestine. Written by British foreign secretary Arthur ___
Led the Turkish nationalist overthrow of the Ottoman sultan in 1922. He then became the president of the Republic of Turkey in 1923. To modernized Turkey, he separated Islamic laws from the nation's laws.
Treaty of Lausanne
the 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey and solemnly abolished the hated Capitulations that the European powers had imposed over the centuries to give their citizens special privilages in the Ottoman Empire.
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