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Microbiology Chapter 5 Lecture
Terms in this set (113)
The sum of all chemical processes carried out by living organisms is called:
Reactions that require energy to synthesize complex molecules from simpler ones are called:
Reactions that release energy by breaking complex molecules into simpler ones that can be reused as building blocks.
All catabolic reactions involve _________ transfer which is directly related to oxidation and reduction.
NAD(ox) is an
The electron transport chain results in:
Metabolism is the sum of _______ and ______.
Catabolism and Anabolism
The loss or removal of electrons
The gain of electrons
Smaller molecules to larger molecules is
Larger molecules to smaller molecules is
ADP + P ---> ATP is an _______ reaction
Glucose ------> energy is a _______ reaction
Microorganisms are grouped by ____ _____ and how they obtain _______.
energy capture, carbon
obtain energy from light
Using carbon dioxide to synthesize organic molecules
obtain energy from oxidizing simple inorganic substances
get their carbon from ready-made organic molecules
obtain chemical energy from light
obtain energy from breaking down ready-made organic compounds
Glucose can be used as both a ______ and a _______.
Input is H2O and CO2, output is glucose and O2
Input is O2 and Glucose, output is CO2 and H2O
Glycolysis, fermentation, aerobic respiration, and photosynthesis each consist of:
a series of chemical reactions
The product of one reaction serves as the ________ for the next
The energy required to start such a reaction
An enzyme is an
Enzymes lower the _______ __________ so reactions can occur at mild temperatures in living cells
The oxidation of glucose release energy, but the reaction does not occur without an input of ______.
In general, chemical reactions that release energy can occur:
without the input of energy
An enzymes only binds to one _______.
The area on the enzyme surface where the enzyme forms a loose association with the substrate.
The substance on which the enzyme acts
Formed when the substrate molecule collides with the active site of its enzyme
Enzymes generally have a high degree of _______.
Enzymes provide a _______ on which reactions take place.
A cofactor is _______.
The coenzyme is not a ______.
Apoenzyme is the
A molecule similar in structure to a substrate can bind to an enzyme's active site and compete with substrate. (e.g. sulfadrugs)
Attach to the enzyme at an allosteric site, which is a site other than the active site
Distort the tertiary protein structure and alter the shape of the active site.
Regulates the rate of many metabolic pathways when an end product of a pathway accumulates and binds to and inactivates the first enzyme in the metabolic pathway.
Where the inhibitor binds to (other than the active site) is called the:
What three factors affect enzyme reactions?
3) Concentration of substrate, product, and enzyme
Anything that affects a protein will also affect enzymes.
True or False?
Even small pH changes can alter the ______ ________ on various chemical groups in enzyme molecules.
The metabolic pathway used by most autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms to begin breakdown of glucose.
The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule, often from ATP and generally increases the molecule's energy during glycolysis.
Glycolysis and Fermentation are forms of _______ Metabolism
Anaerobic metabolism does not require _______, but can occur in the presence or absence of _______.
Glycolysis is the breaking of a six-carbon molecule (_________) into two _______-carbon molecules
NAD and NADH+ tend to be _________ _________.
The capture of energy occurs when producing _______.
_________ Fermentation is a form of anaerobic metabolism, generally found being done in the muscles.
Fermentation is important because NAD+ needs to be:
_________ Fermentation is a form of anaerobic metabolism, generally found being done by yeast.
_______ fermentation is reverse-able, but _________ fermentation is not.
What are four fermentation products that are natural waste products useful to humans?
1) Fermented beverages
Glycolysis is the splitting of _______.
Glycolysis produces __________.
The pyruvate produced by glycolysis can go into _______ _______ or __________.
Aerobic respiration, fermentation
In aerobic respiration, the pyruvate goes through a preparatory step, then enters the _______ cycle.
What is byproduct of aerobic respiration?
Water and CO2
The Krebs cycle occurs in the ________ _____..
glycolysis occurs in the ________.
The inner membrane of the mitochondria is called the ______.
Electron transport chain occurs in both ______ and _______, but just in different places.
Oxygen is the final ________ ________ in aerobic respiration.
Through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions, the electron transport chain performs two basic functions:
1) Accepting electrons from an electron donor and transferring them to an electron acceptor
2) Conserving for ATP synthesis some of the energy released during the electron transfer
As you go through the electron transport chain, the energy.
Cyanide works by stopping the ______ ______ ______, killing the organism.
electron transport chain
Electrons for the hydrogen atoms removed from the reactions of the Krebs cycle are transferred through the electron transport system.
ATP is produced by ____ ____ ____ (pmf) by allowing H across the membrane
proton motive force
Chemiosmosis is by ______ ______ (1961)
There is a ______ concentration of H+ between the Outer and inner membranes of the mitochondria, and a ______ concentration of H+ in the mitochondrial matrix.
The diffusion of H+ ions through ________ _____ creates ____.
The Net number of ATP from glycolysis is ___.
The Net number of NADH from glycolysis is ___.
The Net number of NADH from the preparatory step is ___.
The Net number of NADH from the Krebs cycle is ___.
The Net number of FADH2 from the Krebs cycle is ___.
The Net number of ATP from the Krebs cycle is ___.
In a prokaryotic cell, ______ is the number of ATP created from glycolysis.
In a eukaryotic cell, ______ is the number of ATP created from glycolysis.
How much ATP is produced by fermentation?
Electron transport chain
3 types of Respiration
2) Aerobic Respiration
2) Anaerobic Respiration
Electron acceptors other than oxygen are used
Ex. Nitrate, Sulfate, Ferric Iron, Carbonate, and Perchlorate
Anaerobic Respiration results in _______ energy released than Aerobic respiration.
Most microorganisms, like most animals, can obtain energy from lipids, this is called:
Fats are __________ to glycerol and three fatty acids.
Glycerol is metabolized by __________.
_________ can also be metabolized for energy.
Proteins are first hydrolyzed into individual _______ ______ by proteolytic enzymes
Amino acids are then ________.
Photosynthesis is done by:
Plants algae, and several groups of bacteria
The photosynthesis equation:
6 CO2 + 12 X + sunlight --> C6H12O6 + 12 X + 6 H2O
Where X can indicate O2 or S2
Photosynthesis can be broken into two steps:
1) Light reaction
2) Light independent reaction
Captures energy and converts it to ATP
Light - independent reactions
Uses ATP to synthesize organic compounds
- Involves carbon fixation.
Occurs in photosynthesis
Just creates ATP
Creates energy (ATP) and NADPH
Some prokaryotes can go through photosynthesis without _______.
There are two types of photosynthesis in microorganisms:
1) Form similar to plant photosynthesis (evolution of oxygen) - Cyanobacteria and algae
2) Bacterial photosynthesis - phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria
Energy generation involves inorganic rather than organic chemicals.
Three types of trophs
Most chemolithotrophs use ________ _______ as a carbon source.
Chemolithotrophs use __________ respiration, but an inorganic energy source.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Micro: CH5 - Microbial Metabolism
Microbiology chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism
Microbiology Chapter 5
Microbiology: Chapter 5: Metabolism
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