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IE 2100 Exam 2 (lecture 10 & 11)
Terms in this set (83)
Food = ?
Combustion of fuel takes place...
energy for mechanical movement
Fueling and cooling system = ?
Blood vessels move supplies (?) to combustion sites (?)
oxygen, carbs, fat derivatives
muscles and organs
Blood vessels move byproducts out (?) for dissipation by _____ and _____
lactic acid, CO2, water skin and lungs
Provides oxygen for metabolism and dissipates byproducts
- Carries oxygen from lungs to cells that use oxygen
- Carries fuel to cells and removes metabolic by products
Supports chemical processes in the body that yield energy
Respiratory System: Air inhaled and exhaled by...
pumping thorax via muscles connecting ribs
Respiratory System: Moves air to and from lungs, where...
part of oxygen from inhaled air absorbed into
Respiratory System: Removes CO2, water, heat from...
blood into air to be exhaled
The volume of air exchanged in the lungs depends on...
the requirements associated with the work being performed
Vital capacity = ?
Residual capacity = ?
amount of air left when forcing an expiration
Vital + residual = ?
Vital capacity is a function of...
age, training, gender, body size, body position
Females have (?) % less capacity than males
Untrained people have only (? - ?)% the capacity of athletes
60% - 80%
Movement of gas in and out of lungs
At rest we breath ___ times/minute
10 - 20
In light exercise _____ increased, but not _____
tidal volume, frequency
In heavy work, _____ increases and _____ increases
tidal volume, frequency
Body's transportation system
- Cardiovascular system
Carries oxygen from _____ to _____
lung to cells
Carries nutrients from _____
Carries away metabolic by-products = ?
Left and right halves each consist of an _____ and _____
atrium and ventricle
Blood flows from
atrium to ventricle
Chambers do not...
send blood back and forth
There are _____ circuits of blood circulation
Pulmonary system: Blood with CO2 comes in from
the _____, is pumped out of _____ through two arteries, where the CO2 is _____, and blood _____
Returns to _____ of heart
right atrium right ventricle exhaled reoxygenated left atrium
Systemic system: Blood with oxygen and nutrients
passes through _____, pumped out of _____. Flows through _____ and _____ to muscle and other organs. Come back to _____ of heart through veins.
left atrium left ventricle arteries and capillaries
transport blood into muscles
If muscles need more blood...
blood vessels dilate
If other organs need blood...
capillaries are constricted
Blood supply is quickly distributed as necessary, _____ over _____
Muscles over digestion
Skin over muscles
Heart response to work: Increase stroke volume, effective for _____ work
Heart response to work: Increase heart rate. Once stroke volume is maxed, increasing _____ is main way to increase _____
heart rate cardiac output
At rest about ½ of the volume in the
ventricle is ______, other ½ stays in _____
At rest, output of adult is about _____
During heavy work, can raise to _____
Basal metabolism = ?
energy to function
Resting metabolism = ?
Work metabolism = ?
due to additional energy needed to work
Physical work is only possible when...
there is energy to support the muscular effort needed.
Energy required for muscular effort comes from nutrients being metabolized in the presence of oxygen
Energy required for muscular effort comes from nutrients being metabolized without oxygen
What is workload?
• Ratio of capacity to demands
Physiologically speaking, workload is...
the energy required by the body to do work
Energy expenditure rate of work is ______ related to _____ and ______
linearly oxygen consumption heart rate
generate force and movement
connect muscles to bone
- Degrees of freedom to move
- Synovial fluid
digestive muscles, not under voluntary control
under voluntary control
Muscle Fibers: Each fiber is made up of...
parallel cylindrical myofibrils
Myofibrils are made up of ______ which form a ______ pattern along the length of the myofibril
the contractile units of skeletal muscle
Dynamic Muscular Effort
Characterized by a rhythmic alternation between contraction and relaxation of muscles.
Dynamic Muscular Effort: The muscle acts as a...
pump to the blood circulation
Dynamic Muscular Effort: The muscle is continuously supplied with...
sugar and oxygen, while at the same time waste products are removed
Static Muscular Effort: Characterized by a...
(usually a postural stance or constrained
Static Muscular Effort: The muscle is...
tense, not relaxed.
Static Muscular Effort: The blood vessels are...
compressed by the muscle contraction so no blood flows through the muscle.
Static Muscular Effort: The muscles do not receive...
sugar or oxygen from the blood and waste products
are not removed
Muscle Fatigue: Influenced by:
- Contraction time
- Recovery time
Muscle Fatigue: Which leads to:
- Oxygen deficit
- Lactic acid build up
- Waste build up / no nourishment
Controlling muscular fatigue: Engineering controls
- Allow for strongest postures
- Minimize static muscle loading
• Use jigs and fixtures to hold assembly objects
- Provide handles for carried objects
Controlling muscular fatigue: Administrative controls
- Rest breaks
- Job rotation
The bones of the neck consist of...
7 top vertebrae of the spine, referred to as the "cervical" spine.
The position and movements of the neck and head are controlled by...
a complex of about three dozen muscles which attach from the skull and cervical vertebrae to bones all around the base of the neck.
The motion of the upper arm is controlled by...
The muscles of the upper arm control the ______
Simply holding the arms, without support, requires quite a bit of ______ that quickly gives way to fatigue.
Finger and hand movement is governed by...
the muscles of the forearm
Finger and Hand muscles connect via _____ near the
_____ on one end, and on the other end to tendons which travel through the _____ and connect to the hands and fingers.
tendons elbow wrist
The study of the body in terms of its mechanics
Biomechanics: Use of physics to model...
body forces and torque
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
IE 2100 Exam 2 (lecture 13) MMH
IE 2100 Exam 2 (lecture 15) Ergonomic Design
IE Exam 2 (lecture 13) MSD
IE 2100 Exam 2 (Workstation design)
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