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Law of Independent Assortment

Genes for different traits segregate independently during gamete formation

Principle of Segregation

During gamete formation, alleles for the same trait are separated from one another. Thus gametes, only carry one copy of each gene so each parent only passes one copy of each gene to their offspring.

Down Syndrome Notation

Down Syndrome Notation

45, XO

Turner Syndrome Notation

47, XXY

Klinefelter Sydnrome

47, XXX


47, XYY

Jacob Syndrome

Autosomal Dominant

Appears in every generation
Approx. equal # of males and females affected
Ex. Huntington's Disease

Autosomal Recessive

Appear to "skip" generations
Males and females equally affected

Sex-linked Recessive

Appears to "skip" generations
More males are affected than females
Females can be carriers

Gregor Mendel

Who was the father of genetics?


When was Gregor Mendel born?

Austrian Monk

What was Gregor Mendel before he became interested in genetics?

Pea Plants

How did Gregor Mendel study heredity?

Non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis
Chromosomal abnormalities during crossing-over in meiosis
Mutations in DNA

Name three ways disorders arise.

Abnormal numbers

What are aneuplodies?

Deletions, inversions, translocations, duplications

Name 4 other errors that can occur in chromosomes?

1st law of probability

Past outcomes do not affect future outcomes

2nd law of probability

The probability of 2 events happening at the same time is the product of the probability that the vents will occur independently.

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