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Auguste Comte

Founder of society

Theological Stage

Divine will (Governing everything). Everything is God's plan

Functionalism (Auguste)

Best way to analyze society was to identify the roles that different aspects play could be manifest- explict or latent- hidden

Who pushed positivism

Auguste Comte

Who had three stages "Epistemological Stages"? and what were they

Auguste Comte
1. Theological
2. Metaphysical
3. Scientific

Chicago school

Focused on empirical research.
Emphasized the study of SOCIAL ECOLOGY.
Believes personalities are shaped by sociology.
The city Chicago.

Metaphysical stage

Natural, biologic instincts. Nature

Sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as ________.

The returns to schooling

Scientific stage

Social physics, laws of behavior. Science

Sociology is the study of ________.

group-level dynamics and social structures

According to Randall Collins's (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is ________.

a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education

Who was the author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology?

Harriet Martineau

Positivism is best defined as ________.

the idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them

Which of the following are known as "the founding fathers of the sociological discipline"?

Durkheim, Marx, and Weber

To Marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number of workers would divide society. He referred to this large number of workers as ________.


The author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as ________.


According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine ________.

the way social cohesion among individuals is maintained

According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called ________.


Sociological imagination

the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.

Casual research

What we do everyday as we observe our surroundings and draw conclusions

"If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences" is the theory of which of the following Chicago School theorists?

W.I. Thomas

Which of the following modern sociological theories states that the best way to analyze society is to identify the purpose that different aspects or phenomena play in the overall structure of society?


In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx's belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?

Conflict theory

Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?


The two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are ________.

competition versus consensus

A issue private person matter is

values cherished by an individual are felt by him to be threatened.
ISSUES have to do with it by the environments of the individual and the range of his inner life.

A issue is a public matter

some values cherished by public is felt to be threatened.
ISSUE is involves a crisis in institutional arrangements

Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?



the notion that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another

Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals?

Symbolic interactionism

Field research

Researcher directly observes ppl in their natural settings, either neutrally or as participans

Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all "facts" are really ________.

Social constucts


A proposed relationship between two variables.

Economists tend to see humans as ____________, but sociologists would tend to include ____________:

rational actors; emotional motivations.

Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?


Karl Marx

Most famous. -Social conflict

Max Weber

Brought Marx's ideas back into history

Emilie Durkheim

worked with the division of labor refers to the degree to which jobs are specialized. After worked with suicide

Quantitative Methods

QUANTITY. Seek to obtain info. about the social world that's already in or can be converted to numeric form. EXAMPLE: large populations (Numbers)

Qualitative Methods

QUALITY. attempt to collect info. about the social word that cannot be readily converted to numeric form. EXAMPLE: describing a persons life. (Words)

Deductive approach

a research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, makes empirical observations, and then analyzes the data to confirm reject, or modify the original theory

Inductive approach

a research approach that starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory

Dependent variable

the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain. EFFECT

Independent variable

A measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable. CAUSE

Moderating Variable

Indep. Variable that is changing the reaction of a indep. variable for depent. variable

Mediating Variable

Creates a experience relationship

Non-Material culture

Values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms

Material Culture

Everything that is part of our constructed physical environment, including technology


a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect

Culture relativism

taking into account the differences across cultures with out passing judgement or assigning value


Rules and expectations by which a society governs the behavior of its members.
EXAMPLE: nude beaches


Standards that help determine what is good vs. bad that serve as broad guidelines for social living

Sub Culture

values and behaviors of a smaller group that has different believes that the larger group.

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