53 terms

Exam #1

Auguste Comte
Founder of society
Theological Stage
Divine will (Governing everything). Everything is God's plan
Functionalism (Auguste)
Best way to analyze society was to identify the roles that different aspects play could be manifest- explict or latent- hidden
Who pushed positivism
Auguste Comte
Who had three stages "Epistemological Stages"? and what were they
Auguste Comte
1. Theological
2. Metaphysical
3. Scientific
Chicago school
Focused on empirical research.
Emphasized the study of SOCIAL ECOLOGY.
Believes personalities are shaped by sociology.
The city Chicago.
Metaphysical stage
Natural, biologic instincts. Nature
Sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as ________.
The returns to schooling
Scientific stage
Social physics, laws of behavior. Science
Sociology is the study of ________.
group-level dynamics and social structures
According to Randall Collins's (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is ________.
a result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education
Who was the author of the first methods book in the discipline of sociology?
Harriet Martineau
Positivism is best defined as ________.
the idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them
Which of the following are known as "the founding fathers of the sociological discipline"?
Durkheim, Marx, and Weber
To Marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number of workers would divide society. He referred to this large number of workers as ________.
The author of The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as ________.
According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine ________.
the way social cohesion among individuals is maintained
According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called ________.
Sociological imagination
the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual's life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces.
Casual research
What we do everyday as we observe our surroundings and draw conclusions
"If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences" is the theory of which of the following Chicago School theorists?
W.I. Thomas
Which of the following modern sociological theories states that the best way to analyze society is to identify the purpose that different aspects or phenomena play in the overall structure of society?
In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx's belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
Conflict theory
Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?
The two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are ________.
competition versus consensus
A issue private person matter is
values cherished by an individual are felt by him to be threatened.
ISSUES have to do with it by the environments of the individual and the range of his inner life.
A issue is a public matter
some values cherished by public is felt to be threatened.
ISSUE is involves a crisis in institutional arrangements
Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
the notion that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another
Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals?
Symbolic interactionism
Field research
Researcher directly observes ppl in their natural settings, either neutrally or as participans
Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all "facts" are really ________.
Social constucts
A proposed relationship between two variables.
Economists tend to see humans as ____________, but sociologists would tend to include ____________:
rational actors; emotional motivations.
Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?
Karl Marx
Most famous. -Social conflict
Max Weber
Brought Marx's ideas back into history
Emilie Durkheim
worked with the division of labor refers to the degree to which jobs are specialized. After worked with suicide
Quantitative Methods
QUANTITY. Seek to obtain info. about the social world that's already in or can be converted to numeric form. EXAMPLE: large populations (Numbers)
Qualitative Methods
QUALITY. attempt to collect info. about the social word that cannot be readily converted to numeric form. EXAMPLE: describing a persons life. (Words)
Deductive approach
a research approach that starts with a theory, forms a hypothesis, makes empirical observations, and then analyzes the data to confirm reject, or modify the original theory
Inductive approach
a research approach that starts with empirical observations and then works to form a theory
Dependent variable
the outcome that the researcher is trying to explain. EFFECT
Independent variable
A measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable. CAUSE
Moderating Variable
Indep. Variable that is changing the reaction of a indep. variable for depent. variable
Mediating Variable
Creates a experience relationship
Non-Material culture
Values, beliefs, behaviors, and social norms
Material Culture
Everything that is part of our constructed physical environment, including technology
a system of concepts and relationships, an understanding of cause and effect
Culture relativism
taking into account the differences across cultures with out passing judgement or assigning value
Rules and expectations by which a society governs the behavior of its members.
EXAMPLE: nude beaches
Standards that help determine what is good vs. bad that serve as broad guidelines for social living
Sub Culture
values and behaviors of a smaller group that has different believes that the larger group.