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Terms in this set (16)
Acetyl Coenzyme A
The product of pyruvate decarboxylation formed when coenzyme Q is coupled to an acetyl group
An enzyme complex, consisting of a rotor and a stator, that uses the kinetic energy of protons flowing down their concentration gradient to phosphorylate ADP into ATP. Found in the inner mitochondrial membrane
The process by which the electrochemical proton gradient established by the electron transport chain is harness to phosphorylate ADP into ATP
Electron Transport Chain
A series of protein complexes and small molecules that successively accept and donate electrons originating from NADH and FADH₂, ultimately donating them to O₂. HTe redox potential that is generated is harnessed to establish an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
A catabolic process in which glucose is broken down into two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate. Occurs in the cytosol
THe combination of two process, the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis, that harness the redox potential in glycolysis, pyruvate decarboxylation and the citric acid cycle to generate ATP from ADP
THe potential energy of the protons accumulated in the intermembrane space that is used to generate ATP during chemisomosis
A 3-carbon organic molecule that is the end product of glycolysis
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Substance such as peroxides and free radicals that are produced as normal byproducts of cellular respiration but can also cause oxidative damage to DNA and other biomolecules
What happens to the carbon atoms in the original acetyl-CoA added to the citric acid cycle after they have been transferred to oxaloacetate to form citrate? Are they the two carbon atoms that end up as CO2?
The two-carbon acetyl group is transferred from CoA to a four-carbon oxaloacetate, forming a six-carbon citrate molecule. As the cycle turns, the carbons are released from it as carbon dioxide — a waste product of aerobic cellular respiration that eventually diffuses out of the mitochondria and out of the cell. The two carbon atoms in the two molecules of carbon dioxide are not directly derived from acetyl-CoA; instead, they are derived from the oxaloacetate intermediate. Therefore, the carbon atoms from acetyl-CoA will be released during future rounds of the cycle.
Which of the following atoms has the highest electronegativity?
Which of the following enzymes is not used during the citric acid cycle?
Which type of reactions control the energy release from glucose during the citric acid cycle?
Which molecule enters the citric acid cycle?
Which molecules transport electrons from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain?
NADH and FADH₂
Which process in oxidative phosphorylation releases energy?
the transfer of electrons in redox reactions
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