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a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities
a mixture in which the composition with uniform composition (e.g. sugar dissolved in water)
a substance composed of two or more elements chemically united in fixed portions (e.g. water)
a property that can be measured and observed without changing the composition or identity of a substance
SI unit for amount of substance/matter that contains as many atoms, molecules, or formula units as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12.
Law of Definite Proportions
law created by Proust which states that different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent elements in the same proportion by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
law created by Dalton which states that the same two elements, when combined in different small whole-number proportions, make different compounds
Law of Conservation of Mass
law created by Lavoisier which states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed
the total number of neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element
a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together
an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces
a formula that shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance
a formula that shows the simplest whole-number ratios of the elements in a substance
a process in which a substance/substances is/are changed into one or more new substances
an equation which uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction
the interpretation of the coefficients in a chemical equation as the number of moles of each substance
a reactant present in quantities greater than necessary to react with the quantity of the limiting reagent
a solution in which the solute is initially a liquid or solid and the solute is water
the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperature
an equation in which the formulas of the compounds are written as though they exist as molecules or whole units
Net ionic equation
an equation in which only the species that actually take part in the reaction are shown
the number of charges the atom would have in a molecule (or ionic compound) if electrons were transferred completely
a unit that measures the concentration of a solution and is defined as (moles of solute)/(liters of solution)
Standard atmospheric pressure
the pressure that supports a column of mercury exactly 760 mm high at 0°C at sea level (measured in atm)
a hypothetical gas whose pressure-volume-temperature behavior can be completely accounted for by the ideal gas equation
Law of Partial Pressures
law created by Dalton which states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone
a dimensionless quantity that expresses the ratio of the number of moles of one component to the number of moles of all the components present
Kinetic Molecular Theory
a theory whose central assumptions are that
1. Molecules of a gas possess mass but have a negligible volume in relation to their distances from one another
2. Gas molecules are in constant motion and frequently experience elastic collisions
3. Gas molecules do not exert intermolecular forces on one another
4. Any two gases at the same temperature will have the same average kinetic energy
the gradual mixing of molecules of one gas with molecules of another by virtue of their kinetic properties
Graham's Law of Diffusion
law created by Graham which states that under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, rates of diffusion for gases are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses
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