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History 440 SDSU
Terms in this set (18)
In 71AD last major Jewish revolt lead to the destruction of the second temple (herald's temple) except for Western/Wailing wall which still stands today. As punishment for this uprising Jewish people were ordered by the Roman Empire to leave Judea. This period is known as the Diaspora. Diaspora began the dispersal of Jewish people away from what is now Israel and all over the rest of the world. In whatever new places they settled they would be known as foreigners.
during Diaspora helped the Jewish tradition survive. Under this new way of practicing Judaism small groups of boys would be taught by a teacher (Rabbi) how to live under the laws of God. This practice reinforced the importance of the Torah (a portable temple) It also meant ordinary guys needed to know how to read, write, think and debate so education was highly valued. This would later lead to stereotypes that Jewish people were sneaky.
Roman Catholic Church
resulted after a group of Jesus of Nazareth's followers broke away from Judaism after his death in 30AD. They believed that the teachings in the Torah (laws and traditions) were not very important because Jesus was the messiah. Jewish people rejected the teaches of Jesus and did not believe he was the messiah. As a result the Papacy in 300AD declared that the Roman Catholic Church didn't approve of Jews. As a result of this many people who had settled in areas that were largely catholic during the Diaspora decided to flee.
Islam spread very quickly in 600s and 700s under this empire, as far westward as Spain. By the year 700 the Jews living in Spain found themselves under Muslim leaders. The period of Islamic rule 700-900 is a golden age for Jewish History (Art and Literature prospered, financial stability)
People of the Book
official stance of Islamic leaders; Christians and Jewish people are fellow peoples of the book they worship the same one God and respect the same prophecy or text, and prophets (Abraham, Moses, Jesus) so they deserve relative and respectful treatment.
Europe's Middle Ages
(500-1400); After the collapse of the Roman Empire During this time Germanic Tribes (indigenous people to Europe above the Alps) a war like population who had been fairly nomadic population and had very little value for the things of settled life (towns, cities, trade, education) developed a new culture. A distinct European culture took shape including the Germanic tribes and the Christian Religion and the heritage of the Greeks and Roman Empire (over the next few centuries).
was a King of a Germanic Tribe known as the Franks who wanted to take positive steps to make his Empire more sophisticated and so we invited Jewish families to live in his Kingdom because of several reasons including their value in education and business ties. Any Jewish people living in his realm would receive royal protection and this was the beginning of Jewish communities in Western Europe
Holy Roman Empire
Charlemagne created in the year 800 the Holy Roman Empire, which was supposed to be a truly Christian version of the Roman Empire.
began in 1095. Descendants of Christians/ Germanic Warriors tried to conquer the Middle East. The Pope told European Leaders that Christians in and around Jerusalem were being hassled by Muslims: and so they needed to bring it under the control of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church ("God commanded the Crusaders to do this"). One benefit of being a crusader was that all Sins would be forgiven. This lead to the beginning of Pogroms. About 10 major Crusades that all began with Pogroms (an attack on Jewish people). The thought process was this Holy crusade might as well stark by killing the Jews who had killed and rejected Jesus. The pogroms almost wiped put the Jewish population around the Rhineland. They ended in 1204 with the last crusades, but there were still repercussions for the Jews who had survived.
Bubonic plague or Black Death
Killed 1/3 of the population of Europe 25million people in 5 years (mid 1300s). Was blamed on Jewish people because it was worse and originated in the Jewish Ghettos because of the conditions and the rats who carried the disease. In some towns and cities Jewish people were entirely wiped out by Christians attempting to eradicate the disease.
Christians Kings tried (and succeeded) in gaining the control of Spain (1100-1492). King Fernand and Queen Isabella gave Jewish people living in Spain three options: convert to Christianity, leave Spain and go into exile (most popular choice), or be killed.
The migration eastward
came about in Spain because of the Reconquista
was the name for the thousands of Jewish towns sprung up in Eastern Europe (1400s-1600s) Main destination of Migrating Jews was the Kingdom of Poland because Polish rulers invited them and promised them certain freedoms and protections such as a farm and the ability to own land (sometimes). Their own culture was developed with the Yiddish language and the practicing of Judaism
Pail of Settlement
In the late 1700s the Kingdom of Poland ceased to exist and Poland was craved up, most of it was given to Russia who hated Jews, and lots of new restrictions; Russians oppressed everyone (Eastern Orthodox) 1800s. Russian leaders created the THIS where Jewish people had to live and could not travel outside, often even to the villages they were born in. The Jewish people required to do the same job as your father, could not receive education outside of their religion and were forcibly drafted into the Russian Army (term of service was 25 years).The Russian government carried out pogroms 1880s-90s and were designed to intimidate the population. They were targeted because they associated Jewish people with radical political movements.
Alfred Dreyfus Affair
-1894 he was arrested and charged with treason for passing military secrets to the Germans
-Found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment, all honors were retracted and publicly destroyed
-It was clear at the time that no one had passed military secrets to the Germans
-Opinion was split: Those who claimed her was innocent because of the evidence and thought that it was a step backwards for France. Those who claimed he was guilty thought you shouldn't even question the verdict because that makes you a traitor as well
-He was sent to an isolated island "Devil's Island" with almost nothing on it
-The huge uproar meant that he was sent back to France for a 2nd trial and so he was found guilty again
-in 1910 the president of France gave him a pardon and he didn't have to serve his sentence, but all his military honors, pension, and reputation were tarnished and withheld
-On common conclusion is that certain factions in the military thought they could get away with it because he was Jewish and they wanted the army to have publicity and boost support
"Protocols of the Elders of Zion"
-A document that appeared in the 1890s and was translated into every major language
-It was a false record of the leaders of Zion=Israel elders had a meeting in which they planned to take over the world by beginning a period of chaos through terrorist attacks
-Begin a one world state controlled by Jews (obviously absurd) but people still believed that it demonstrated what a threat Jewish people could be
-In the year 1919 Henry Ford had the document published in the Ford company newspaper
-It was created by the Russian Secret Police who used it to justify their attacks against Jewish people (which the admitted publicly)
-Jewish writer from Austria
-Jewish people will never truly fit in, they will always be targets
-Best way out of this situation: Jewish people need their own country to be considered fully equal among citizens of the world and for the sake of their own self-respect and as a refuge (Zionism)
-He was an activist and organizer for this idea
-Published his book The Jewish State
-It had to be in Palestine
-2 reactions to persecution in pail of settlement
-Well over a million Russian and Polish Jews left the Pail of Settlement and went to Western European countries. Well assimilated Jewish people and the newcomers who were very different who had developed their own culture (Ostjuden = Eastern Jews)
-Somewhere around 1 million came to the USA around 1880-1920s by 1939 more Jewish people lived in New York then in any other City
-The other reaction was Zionism
-The Zionist established offices in every major city in Europe for fundraising and outreach
-Organized communities of settlers used this money to buy or lease land in the ottoman empire (Current controller of Israel) by the early 1900s some groups of early settlers had gone to carve out farms
-Pretty small movement
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