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33 terms

Real Communication Ch. 3

Dr. Howard Communication class 101
STUDY
PLAY
Language
A system of symbols that we use to think about and communicate experiences and feelings
Denotative Meaning
The basic, consistently accepted definition of a word
Connotative Meaning
The emotional or attitudinal response people have to a word
Cognitive Language
The system of symbols you use to describe people, things, and situations
Grammar
The system of rules of a language that guides the creation of words, phrases, and sentences
Communication Acquisition
The process of learning to use language appropriately and effectively
Informing
Using language to send and receive information
Feelings
Emotions; the use of language to express emotion
Imagining
The ability to think, play, and be creative in communication
Ritualizing
Learning and following the rules for managing conversations and relationships
Abstraction Ladder
A model that ranks communication from specific, which ensures clarity, to general and vague
Evasion
Using unclear or misleading words
Euphemisms
Inoffensive words or phrases that substitute for terms that might be perceived as upsetting.
Slang
Language that is informal, nonstandard, and usually particular to a specific group
Jargon
Technical language that is specific to members of a particular profession, interest group, or hobby
Semantics
The study of the relationships among symbols, objects, people and concepts; the meaning that words have for people
Pragmatics
The ability to use the symbol systems of a culture appropriately
Biased Language
Language that has subtle meanings that influence perception
Politically Correct Language
Language that replaces biased language with more neutral terms
Fact
A statement that is true and verifiable
Opinions
Statements that involve personal evaluations
Inferences
Deductions or conclusions that we make about the facts we observe
Speech Repertoires
Sets of complex language behaviors or options that we draw on to meet the demands of specific situations
High Language
Formal, polite, language, used in business contexts, in the classroom, or even at formal social gatherings
Low Language
Informal language used in casual environments
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
A claim that the words a culture uses influence thinking
Linguistic Determinism
The idea that language influences how we see the world
Linguistic Relativity
The belief that speakers of different languages have different views of the world
High-context Cultures
Cultures that rely more on contextual cues - such as time, place, relationship, and situation - both to interpret meaning and to send subtle messages
Low-context Cultures
Cultures in which individuals use very direct language and rely less on contextual cues for communication information
Accommodation
Changing communication behavior to adapt to other people
Code Switching
A type of accommodation in which communicators change their regular language and slang to fit into a particular group
Style Switching
A type of accommodation in which communicators change their tonality, pitch, rhythm, and inflection to fit into a particular group