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Terms in this set (33)
Fundamental Attribution Error:
A tendency to overestimate the extent to which a person's behaviour is due to internal, dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors.
Quaquebeke & Giessner (2010) on attribution errors
Participants saw a picture portraying two football players moving towards a ball. The ball was said to be lying still on the ground. The height of the two depicted players was randomly manipulated so that one player would always be bigger than the other. They told participants that the player on the left would fall to the ground after the portrayed scene. We then asked the participants to indicate the reasons why. The results were that participants tended to call fouls against the taller player, rather than the shorter player. An example of FAE.
Self-serving attributions are explanations for one's own successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational factors.
Johnson et al on attribution errors
The "teacher" attributed improved performance to themselves but blamed pupils if they continued to do poorly.
Found in collectivistic cultures. Individuals attribute failure to dispositional factors and successes to situational factors
Foot in the door
Foot-in-the-door technique argues that when we get someone to agree to a small request, there is an increased chance that the individual will agree to a second, larger request. Based on the principle of commitment.
Freedman & Fraser's study on foot-in-the-door
Found that when asked to put a small sign on their front law, people were later willing to put a larger sign on the lawn. When asked initially to put a large sign on their lawns, most people refused.
Door in the face
When an offer is made which will surely be turned down, and then a second, more reasonable offer is made. The fact that you refused the first offer makes it more likely that you will accept the second offer. Based on the principle of reciprocity.
Cialidini (1975) on door-in-the-face
In his experiment, students were asked if they were willing to chaperon a group of juvenile delinquents to the zoo. 83% refused. When they were first asked to sign up for two hours per week as a counselor for a minimum of two years, none volunteered. But when they were then asked to chaperon, 50% agreed to do so.
Informational Social Influence
An explanation of conformity. When we are in ambiguous situations, we look to others to determine how we should behave.
Normative Social Influence
An explanation of conformity. We conform because we need social acceptance and desire to fit into the group.
Sherif on conformity
Informational Social Influence. The Autokinetic effect. Participants tested individually produced highly variable answers as to how much the light moved; but when tested together their answers converged and a "group norm" would be established. Moreover, participants would stick to this group norm even when they were on their own again.
Asch on conformity
Normative social influence. The famous line test. Approximately 75% of the participants conformed at least once. When combining the trials, Asch found that participants conformed to the incorrect group answer approximately one-third of the time; 5% conformed all of the time, and 24% never conformed. In the control condition, all trials were answered correctly.
Abrams on conformity
Found that psychology students conformed to the Asch paradigm if they thought they were with psychology students (in-group) rather than history students (out-group)
Berry on conformity
Found that collectivistic farmers (Temne) had higher rates of conformity on the Asch paradigm than individualistic hunters (Inuits)
List three factors that affect conformity
Unanimity, whether responses were public or private, cultural dimension (individualistic or collectivistic), self-esteem (Stang), group size (Asch).
The perspective of a culture based on values and cultural norms. Dimensions work on a continuum - for example, a culture is never 100% collectivistic or individualistic, but are different levels with a preference for one set of behaviours over another.
Characteristics of individualistic cultures
Uniqueness is valued; speaking one's mind; achievement is important; freedom and autonomy; self-actualization is a goal; right to privacy; self-reliance; rule breaking leads to guilt.
Characteristics of collectivistic cultures
Social harmony is valued; modesty; self is defined by group membership; helping the group is the goal; privacy is not expected; rule breaking leads to shame; interdependence and shared responsibility.
This is the mistake when we assume that all members of a culture share the same traits. We cannot attribute these characteristics to individuals, but use them to describe the general behaviour of the group.
Stereotype threat is the fear that you will confirm a negative stereotype about a group that you belong to. When people are faced with a stereotype threat, they often get nervous and perform worse, thus confirming the stereotype.
Steele & Aronson on effect of stereotypes
Found that when African Americans were told that a test was of their "intellectual ability" (stereotype congruent condition) they performed more poorly than when the test was labeled a test of "problem solving strategies - and not of ability" (stereotype neutral condition).
Researchers first immerse themselves in the culture in order to develop understanding. They do not come right into the field and carry out research. There is no hypothesis to start off the research. Research questions are developed by interactions within the local culture.
The researchers adapt or assemble instruments for assessment through interaction with indigenous researchers or members of the community to be studied.
The goal is not to draw universal conclusions about human behaviour, but rather to apply the findings in the culture in which the research was done.
Researchers decide what to study and how to analyze it before arriving in the field. They compare their research findings globally - with the assumption that there was some commonality of behaviour among all cultures.
They use established theories and data collection methods from their culture or from "mainstream" psychology. "Professionals" carried out the research upon arrival.
A cognitive representation of a social group that helps simplify the social world and allow assumptions to be made about a person based on limited information.
Rogers & Frantz on stereotype formation
Carried out a study of how conformity led to higher rates of stereotyping and willingness to discriminate against Africans in Zimbabwe. Stereotyping may be the result of normative social influence.
Schaller (1991) on stereotype formation
Participants were initially assigned to be members of a minority group or a majority group. They were then presented with a series of statements that described members of the two groups performing either desirable or undesirable behaviors. Results showed that participants perceived illusory correlations that favored their own group, indicating an in-group bias. They also showed negative stereotyping of the out-group, focusing on the more negative aspects of behaviour, rather than the positive behaviours. This study supports the social identity theory as a possible reason for the creation of stereotypes.
The process by which we identity which groups we belong to and which groups we do not. The groups we belong to and identify with are referred to as our "in-groups." The groups that we do not belong to, are referred to as "out-groups."
Sherif on Social Identity Theory
Carried out a study that showed how simple categorization into in-group and out-group can lead to conflict. When these identities are no longer salient because of a common threat to the groups, then the conflict disappears.
Bandura's Social Learning Theory. This is the argument that I don't need to receive reinforcement personally. I can learn by watching others be rewarded (or punished) for behaviour.
Bashing Bobo (Bandura)
A study of Social Learning Theory. The results were that all of the children showed some level of aggression against the Bobo. However, the group that saw the aggressive model were the most aggressive. Those that saw the control were second; and those what saw the passive model showed the least aggression. In addition, the boys were the most violent. They tended to imitate both the male and the female models, although they commented that the woman's behaviour was not acceptable, saying "Ladies should not behave that way." Girls tended to imitate the verbal aggression of the male - and imitated the female model more directly.
Festinger's Doomsday Cult
Festinger carried out a covert participant observation to observe the behaviour of the cult. He found that they self-justified their behaviour after Doomsday didn't happen.
Ross et al's game show study
Found that the audience thought that the game show host was more intelligent, even though they knew he wrote the questions. Assumed dispositional over situational factors - and committed the Fundamental Attribution Error.
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