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neck gland in children; helps immature immune system make white blood cells; disappears by teen years


found in neck; makes hormone thyroxine which controls the rate of metabolism (how rapidly food is burned)


small dots of tissue inside thyroid; control amount of calcium and bone thickness


small 'pyramids' on top of kidneys; hormones aid 'fight or flight' reactions for emergencies


pea-sized; at base of brain; makes growth horone and many other hormones which control other glands; nicknamed master gland


tough bands that connect bones to each other


bands that attach muscles to bones or other muscles

bursa sacs

clusters of sacs that make 'oil' to lubricate/smooth movement in joints

bone marrow

in center of long bones; make most red blood cells and some white


yellowish fluid that carries and nourishes blood cells


clear fluid in plasma; passes through blood vessels to wash body cells; collects germs for later destruction

lymph nodes

found mostly near joints; here white blood cells destroy germs collected by lymph; when ill, becomes swollen with germs

white blood cells

attack and 'swallow' germs


chemical defenders of the body


outer skin layer


dead layer at surface of epidermis


inner skin layer; contains hair roots and sweat glands


tube that carries food from mouth to stomach


grinds and adds water to food

small intestine

most digestion and absorption of food happens in this 20 foot tube

large intestine

water needed during digestion is reabsorbed here


found where small and large intestines join; has no known job in humans


rhythmic muscle contractions that squeeze food through the intestines

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