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Digestion, glands, blood, skin, and joints concentration study sheet

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thymus
neck gland in children; helps immature immune system make white blood cells; disappears by teen years
thyroid
found in neck; makes hormone thyroxine which controls the rate of metabolism (how rapidly food is burned)
parathyroid
small dots of tissue inside thyroid; control amount of calcium and bone thickness
adrenals
small 'pyramids' on top of kidneys; hormones aid 'fight or flight' reactions for emergencies
pituitary
pea-sized; at base of brain; makes growth horone and many other hormones which control other glands; nicknamed master gland
ligament
tough bands that connect bones to each other
tendon
bands that attach muscles to bones or other muscles
bursa sacs
clusters of sacs that make 'oil' to lubricate/smooth movement in joints
bone marrow
in center of long bones; make most red blood cells and some white
plasma
yellowish fluid that carries and nourishes blood cells
lymph
clear fluid in plasma; passes through blood vessels to wash body cells; collects germs for later destruction
lymph nodes
found mostly near joints; here white blood cells destroy germs collected by lymph; when ill, becomes swollen with germs
white blood cells
attack and 'swallow' germs
antibody
chemical defenders of the body
epidermis
outer skin layer
keratin
dead layer at surface of epidermis
dermis
inner skin layer; contains hair roots and sweat glands
esophagus
tube that carries food from mouth to stomach
stomach
grinds and adds water to food
small intestine
most digestion and absorption of food happens in this 20 foot tube
large intestine
water needed during digestion is reabsorbed here
appendix
found where small and large intestines join; has no known job in humans
peristalsis
rhythmic muscle contractions that squeeze food through the intestines