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the though that man controls his/her life by the decisions he/she makes


the idea that man's life is controlled by the gods and that he/she is unable to change his/her destiny


the purging of feelings of fear and pity


the quality in art and literature that stimulates pity, tenderness, or sorrow in the reader of viewer; closely associated with the pity that tragedy is supposed to evoke


the effect resulting from unsuccessful attempts to achieve pathos; if a literary work attempts to make readers or spectators weep and only succeeds in making them laugh


when the tragic hero recognizes his transgression/crime/error


reversal of fortune or the tragic hero's fall from high to low

Noble Stature

the tragic hero must have a lofty position to fall from or else there is no tragedy


the tragic flaw


excessive pride

Dramatic Irony

when the reader knows something the character doesn't

Situational Irony

when actions have the opposite effect as expected

Verbal Irony

when a person says one thing but means another


a short, concise, sometimes witty statement of universal truth


line-by-line debates


a group of 12-15 men who sing, dance, and narrate during the plays


semi-circular dancing area on the stage used by the chorus


the firs ode the chorus sings as it enters the orchestra


song sung by the chorus as it turns from one side of the orchestra to the other


song sung by the chorus that separates one scene from the next


any choral ode sung after the parados


a building or tent at the back of the acting area, often painted for scenery


the concluding scene of a play


a cart inside of the skene which could be suddenly rolled out to display the result of an event inside

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