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A. Glycerol + phosphate group


B. 2 fatty acids


A+B. phospholipid

combination of glycerol + phosphate group + 2 fatty acids

C. Cholesterol

controls fluidity (when under low temps, it increases fluidity; when under high temps, it decreases fluidity); helps self heal with lipids

D. Glycoproteins

carrier molecules; constantly moving; active and passive transport

E. lipid bilayer

boundary; not soluble in water; moves to create opening for small molecules (H2O, glucose, O2, CO2); passive transport

F. matrix or receptors

matrix: attachments that hold on; receptors: tell cell what it needs

A. renal pelvis

collects urine from nephrons

B. medulla

middle; contains nephrons; water is reabsorbed to balance the concentration of blood

C. cortex

contains parts of nephrons; blood is filtered

D. ureter

carries blood from renal pelvis to bladder

E. renal vein and artery

renal artery: carries unfiltered blood from heart to kidney; renal vein: carries filtered blood from kidney to heart

F. bladder

stores urine

G. urethra

urine leaves body through this tube

A. glomerulus

ball of capillaries

B, D. renal artery and vein

carries blood to or from the kidney

C, F. capillary/artiole

carries blood

E. loop of henle

rebalances blood; especially sodium and water (reabsorption and secretion)

G. glomerular capsule

filters blood

H. collecting tubule

collects all the materials; last step of reabsorption of water (ADH)

Proximal convoluted tubule/distal convoluted tubule

reabsorption through active and passive transport

Adrenal glands

make aldosterone


regulates secretion of H and K from blood into nephron

Does diffusion occur through veins and arteries?

NO, only capillaries

How much blood is constantly going through kidneys at any moment?

1/4 of your blood supply


antidiuertic hormone: when there is a lack of water, the pituitary gland creates more ADH. the ADH makes the cell membrane of the collecting duct more permeable to water, so more water is absorbed. this balances the water.

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