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Rapid and uncontrolled growth made American cities places of both exciting opportunity and severe social problems.


After 1880, most immigrants to America came from northern and western Europe.

False. After 1880, most immigrants to America came from southern and eastern Europe.

Most of the New Immigrants who arrived in America were escaping from the slums and poverty of European cities.


Female social workers established settlement houses to aid struggling immigrants and promote social reform.


American Protestantism was dominated by "liberal" denominations that adapted religious ideas to modern culture and promoted a "social gospel" rather than biblical literalism.


Many native-born Americans considered the New Immigrants a threat to American democracy and Anglo-Saxon purity.


Two religions that gained strength in the United States from the New Immigration were Roman Catholicism and Judaism.


Charles Darwin's theories of evolution were overwhelmingly rejected by the majority of both Protestant and Catholic religious thinkers in the late nineteenth century.


In the late nineteenth century, secondary (high school) education was increasingly carried on by private schools.

False. In the late nineteenth century, secondary (high school) education was increasingly carried on by public schools.

Booker T. Washington believed that blacks should try to achieve social equality with whites but not economic equality.

False. Booker T. Washington believed that blacks should try to achieve economic equality with whites but not social equality.

American higher education depended on both public "land-grant" funding and private donations for its financial support.


Urban newspapers often promoted a sensational "yellow journalism" that emphasized sex and scandal rather than politics or social reform.


Post-Civil War writers like Mark Twain and William Dean Howells turned from social realism toward fantasy and science fiction in their novels.

False. Post-Civil War writers like Mark Twain and William Dean Howells turned to social realism.

There was a growing tension in the late nineteenth century between women's traditionally defined "sphere" of family and home and the social and cultural changes of the era.


The new urban environment generally weakened the family but offered new opportunities for women to achieve social and economic independence.


After 1900, the pro-suffrage movement stressed that women should have the vote in order to improve social morality rather than because they were the equals of men.


The new cities' glittering consumer economy was symbolized especially the rise of

c. large, elegant department stores.

One of the most difficult new problems generated by the rise of cities and the urban American
life-style was

c. disposing of large quantities of consumer-generated waste material.

Two technical developments of the late nineteenth century that contributed to the spectacular
growth of American cities were

c. the electric trolley and the skyscraper.

Countries from which many of the "New Immigrants" came included

c. Poland & Italy

Among the factors driving millions of European peasants from their homeland to America

a. American food imports and religious persecution.

Besides providing direct services to immigrants, the reformers of Hull House worked for
general goals like

b. anti-sweatshop laws to protect women and child laborers.

The one immigrant group that was totally banned from America after 1882 nativist agitation
was the

d. Chinese.

Two religious groups that grew most dramatically because of the "New Immigration" were

d. Jews and Roman Catholics.

The phrase "social Gospel" refers to

c. the efforts of some Christian reformers to apply their religious beliefs to new social

Besides aiding immigrants and promoting social reforms, settlement houses like Jane
Addams's Hull House demonstrated that

b. the cities offered new challenges and opportunities for women.

Traditional American Protestant religion received a substantial blow from

d. the biological ideas of Charles Darwin.

Unlike Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois advocated

b. integration and social equality for blacks.

In the late nineteenth century, American colleges and universities benefited from

a. federal and state "land-grant" assistance and private philanthropy of wealthy donors.

American reformers like Henry George and Edward Bellamy advocated

a. utopian reforms to end poverty and eliminate class conflict.

Authors like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, and Jack London turned American literature toward
a greater concern with

d. social realism and contemporary problems.

High-rise urban buildings that provided barracks-like housing for urban slum dwellers.

Dumbbell Tenements

Term for the post-1880 newcomers who came to America primarily from southern and eastern Europe

New Immigrants

Immigrants who came to America to earn money for a time and then returned to their native land

Birds of Passage

The religious doctrines preached by those who believed the churches should directly address economic and social problems

Social Gospel

The settlement house in the Chicago slums that became a model for women's involvement in urban social reform

Hull House

The profession established by Jane Addams and others that opened new opportunities for women in the modern city

Social Worker

Nativist organization that attacked "New Immigrants" and Roman Catholicism in the 1880s and 1890s

American Protection Agency

The church that became the largest American religious group, mainly as a result of the "New Immigration"

Roman Catholics

Black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide training in agriculture and crafts

Tuskegee Institute

The organization founded by W. E. B. Du Bois and others to advance black social and economic equality


Henry George's best-selling book that advocated social reform through the imposition of a "single tax" on land

Progress and Poverty

A federal law, promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader, that was used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents

Comstock Law

Charlotte Perkins Gilman's book urging women to enter the work force and advocating cooperative kitchens and child-care centers

Women and Economics

Organization formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others to promote the vote for women

National American Women's Suffrage Movement

Women's organization founded by reformer Frances Willard and others to oppose alcohol consumption

Women's Christian Temperance Movement

Louis Sullivan

M. Chicago-based architect whose high-rise innovation
allowed more people to crowd into limited urban space

Walter Rauschenbusch

E. Leading Protestant advocate of the "social gospel" who
tried to make Christianity relevant to urban and industrial

Jane Addams

J. Leading social reformer who lived with the poor in the
slums and pioneered new forms of activism for women

Dwight L. Moody

N. Popular evangelical preacher who brought the tradition of
old-time revivalism to the industrial city

Mary Baker Eddy

D. Author and founder of a popular new religion based on
principles of spiritual healing

Booker T. Washington

F. Former slave who promoted industrial education and
economic opportunity for blacks but did not advocate
black social equality

W.E.B. Du Bois

L. Harvard-educated scholar and advocate of full black social
and economic equality through the leadership of a
"talented tenth"

William James

G. Harvard scholar who made original contributions to
modern psychology and philosophy

Henry George

A. Controversial reformer whose book Progress and Poverty
advocated solving problems of economic inequality by a
tax on land

Emily Dickinson

O. Gifted but isolated New England poet, the bulk of whose
works were not published until after her death

Mark Twain

B. Midwestern-born writer and lecturer who created a new
style of American literature based on social realism and

Victoria Woodhull

H. Radical feminist propagandist whose eloquent attacks on
conventional social morality shocked many Americans in
the 1870s

Anthony Comstock

K. Vigorous nineteenth-century crusader for sexual "purity"
who used federal law to enforce his moral views

Charlotte Perkins Gilman

I. Brilliant feminist writer who advocated cooperative
cooking and child-care arrangements so that women could
obtain greater economic independence and equality

Henry Adams

C. Well-connected and socially prominent historian who
feared modern trends and sought relief in the beauty and
culture of the past

New industrial jobs and urban excitement

G. Lured millions of rural American off the farms and into the cities

Uncontrolled rapid growth and the "New Immigration" from Europe

B. Created intense poverty and other problems in the crowed urban slums

Cheap American grain exports to Europe

E. Helped uproot European peasants from their ancestral lands and sent them seeking new opportunities in America and elsewhere

The cultural strangeness and poverty of southern and eastern European immigrants

I. Provoked sharp hostility from some native-born Americans and organized labor groups

Social gospel ministers and settlement-house

H. Assisted immigrants and other slum dwellers and pricked middle-class consciences about urban problems

Darwinian science and growing urban materialism

C. Weakened the religious influence in American society and created divisions within the churches

Government land grants and private philanthropy

F. Supported the substantial improvements in American undergraduate and graduate education in the late nineteenth century

Popular newspapers and "yellow journalism"

A. Encouraged the mass urban public's taste for scandal and sensation

Changes in moral and sexual attitudes

J. Created sharp divisions about the "new morality' and issues such as divorce

The difficulties of family life in the industrial city

D. Led women and men to delay marriage and have fewer children

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