14 terms

Soil terms

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Humus
Rotting organic matter. Source of soil nutrients.
Organic Horizon
Denoted by 'O', the top soil layer which contains the leaf litter and humus.
Leaching
The process by which water moves down through the soil.
Mor
Organic matter from pine needles and heather which makes acid humus.
Translocation
The movement of dissolved minerals between horizons.
Top soil - A horizon
The upper layer of the soil, usually with most organic matter but can be leached.
Subsoil - B horizon
Lower soil horizons, usually containing more rocks and minerals than topsoil.
Eluviation
The process by which minerals are translocated out of a horizon (E=Exit).
Illuviation
The process by which minerals are translocated into a horizon (I=In)
Leaf Litter
Leaves and organic matter shed by plants into the soil.
Iron Pan
A hard iron layer in the B horizon of a podsol.
Podsol
Upland soil with a grey, leached Ae horizon and an Iron Pan and yellow B horizon.
Brown Earth
Lowland, fertile soil with a well-mixed top and subsoil and showing feint horizons.
Gley
Waterlogged soil with blueish hue and highly infertile.