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Lesson 1 - Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Lesson 2 - Volcanic Eruptions Lesson 3 - Volcanic Landforms


Earth's rocky outer layer


one of the large pieces that Earth's crust is broken into


the line along which something ends


a mountain that forms in Earth's crust when magma reaches the surface


a molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle


the term used for magma when it reaches Earth's surface

Ring of Fire

a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean

island arc

a string of volcanic islands created along a converging boundary

hot spot

a concentration of heat in the mantle capable of producing magma, which rises to Earth's surface

magma chamber

the area beneath a volcano where magma accumulates


a long tube that extends from Earth's crust us through the top of the volcano, connecting the magma chamber to Earth's surface


any place where molten rock and gas leave a volcano

lava flow

the spread of lava as it pours out of a vent


a bowl-shaped area that may form at the top of a volcano around the central vent


a material found in magma that forms from oxygen and silicon

pyroclastic flow

the mixture of hot gases, ash, cinders, and bombs that flow down the sides of a volcano when it erupts explosively


sleeping; expected to awaken in the future and become active


dead; unlikely to ever erupt again


the hole left when a volcano collapses

cinder cone

volcanic material that has built up around a vent into a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain

composite volcano

tall, cone-shaped mountains in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash

shield volcano

thin layers of lava pour out of a vent and harden on top of previous layers slowly building a wide, gently sloping mountain

volcanic neck

formed when magma hardens in a volcano's pipe and the surrounding rock later wears away


magma that forces itself across rock layers and then hardens


magma that squeezes between horizontal rock layers and then hardens


a mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust

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