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60 terms

psych bio test

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dendrites
part of neuron; recieve messages from ther cells
axon
part of neuron; passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons
terminal branches of axon
part of neuron; form junctions with other cells
myeling sheath
part of neuron; covers the axon of some neurons (like rubber on electric chords) and speeds up neural impulse fat
nodes of ranvier
part of neuron; part of the axon not protected by myeling
neural impulse
part of neuron; electrical signal traveling down the axon
cell body (SOMA)
part of the neuron; the cell's life support center
resting potential
polarized; positives outside, negatives inside (Na+ trying to get in)
action potential
depolarized; positive inside (doors open and let Na+ in)
recovery period
no matter how strong the signal is, nothing will happen (Na+ goes out again)
all-or nothing principle
neurons only fire if the incoming messages are in adecuate threshold (if they are strong enough)
neurotransmitters
chemical substances involved in the transmition of neural impulses from one neuron to another
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter; controls muscle contractions. Also helps with memory formation. Lack of it = botulism (muscles stop moving)
dopamine
neurotransmitter; voluntary movements, learning and memory, emotional arousal. lack of it = parkinson (never stop moving) or schizophrenia (weird emotions)
noradrenaline
neurotransmitter; arousal, learning and memory, decrease hunger. lack of it = cocaine and amphetamine
seratonin
neurotransmitter; emotional arousal and sleep. lack of it = anxiety, insomnia, mood disorders
endorphins
neurotransmitter; "endogenous morphine" inhibits pain
The Central Nervous System
_____ is made up of the brain and spinal cord
brain
what makes decisions. Composed of neurons, and life sustaining functions of the body
spinal cord
long bundle of nerves
outer section
____ of the spinal cord with white matter, composed of myelinard axons. Transmits messages from body to brain and viceversa
inner section
_____ of the spinal cord with gray matter, composed of SOMAs neurons. Controls certain reflexes
sensory neurons
carry messages from the sense (from spine to the brain). (one of the 3 characteristics of inner section)
motor neurons
carry messages from brain to the periphery of the body (makes de muscle move). (one of the 3 characteristics of inner section)
interneurons
receive sensory messages. Sends messages to the motor neurons with directions about what to do
(one of the 3 characteristics of inner section)
The Peripheral Nervous System
Allows brain and spinal cord to communicate with sensory systems. Permits to control muscles and glands
autonomic nervous system
involuntary muscles and movements. (breathing, digesting, heart beat, etc). <Peripheral Nervous System>
somatic nervous system
controls senses and skeletal muscles. Voluntary actions (walking, dancing, etc) <Peripheral Nervous System>
Sympathetic division
fight-flight. heart pumps faster for dealing with stress <autonomic nervous system>
parasympathetic division
restores energy lost after stressful event <autonomic nervous system>
medulla
where nerves cross from one side to another part of the brain. Left works for right side and viceversa. (part of the brain)
pons
relays messages between the cerebellum to cortex (part of the brain)
reticular formation
a system of nerves between hind and mid-brain. Controls arousal and attention (part of the brain)
cerebellum
controls balance and maintains muscle coordination (part of the brain). little brain, most affected by alcohol.
limbic system
includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus and amygdala. Involved in emotions, motivations and learning. (part of the brain)
thalamus
relays information from sensory organs ro the cortex (part of the brain and limbic system)
hypothalamus
regulates body temperature, thirst, sex, hunger, sleep, walk and emotions. incharge of "biological stuff" (part of the brain and limbic system)
hippocampus
long-term memories. location of objects, sends the for "storage" around the cortex. (part of the brain and limbic system)
amygdala
responsible for fear and memory of fear. If damaged, fears will decrease. (part of the brain and limbic system)
cerebral cortex
outermost part of the brain. Grayish pink, because of color of neurons (gray) and small blood vessels (pink)
hemispheres
cortex is divided into 2 ______
carpus callosum
thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
frontal lobe
higher mental processes, such as speech, planning, decision making, personality, memory. Helps emotions. (part of cortex)
temporal lobe
Auditory cortex and auditory cortex association area. Oddly sense of taste also processed here. (part of cortex)
parietal lobe
recognition, orientation, movement. Touch, temperature, body position. Somatosensory cortex. (part of cortex)
occipital lobe
visual info, in the primary visual cortex. helps identify and make sense of visuals. (part of cortex)
motor cortex
in the frontal lobe of cortex. Response for voluntary movements. Commands to the muscle of the somatic nervous system or peripheral
Somatosensory cortex
in the parietal lobe of cortex. Receive info from the body like taste, pain, heat, skin.
Association Areas
responsible for coordination and interpretation and higher mental processing.
left frontal lobe (association area)
Broca's area. devoted to production of speech
left temporal lobe
Wernicke's area. Help us understand the meaning of words. (association area)
glands
organs that secrete chemicals to the body. (ex. salivary and sweat)
endocrine glands
glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
pituitary gland
controls all endocrine glands. "master gland". located in brain. growth hormone. in charge of function of other glands.
pineal gland
secretes melatonin. primarily at night. influences sleep-wake cycle. located in brain.
thyroid gland
secretes thyroxin. regulates metabolism. located in the neck
pancreas
controls levels of sugar in food. secretes insulin.
adrenal gland
everyone had 2 on top of each kidney. stimulates the sympathetic system. produces hormones: corticoides and cortisol
immune system
system of organs and chemicals in the body that helps it battle diseases and injuries.
thymus gland
helps body combat diseases and infections