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47 terms

ch6 the cell

STUDY
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cell theory
1. all organisms are made of 1 or more cell
2. cells are the fundamental function and structural unit of life
3. all cells come from pre-existing cells
robert hooke
first to use a microscope, named what he saw "cells" because they were like compartments
TEM (transmission electron microscope)
intermal structures (organelles)
SEM (scanning electron microscope)
surface of cell (outside)
micrograph
photo of view through microscope
plant cll
cell wall, chloroplasts (photosynthesis( and central vacuole
animal cell
flagellum, centriole, and lysosome
prokaryotes
bacteria. no nucleus, dna throughout. reproduces asexually
eukaryotes
nucleus
cell (plasma) membrane
selectively permeable membrane. thin layer that determines what goes in and out. phospholipid bi-layer.
passive transport
no energy is expended. high - low.
diffusion
net movement of particles from a high to low concentration side
facilitated diffusion
uses transport proteins because some are too big to pass through the membrane
active transport
cells expend energy to move molecules. low - high. proteins are involved. Na-K pump. uses ATP
osmosis
passive transport of WATER across a selectively permeable membrane
hypertonic solutions
high concentration of solute. low amount of water.
hypotonic solutions
low concentration of solute. high amount of water.
isotonic solutions
equal solute and water amounts
lysed
hypotonic solutions, water pops animal cell
plasmolysis
cell membrane in plant cell shrivels away from cell wall from lack of water.
turgid
normal state for plant cell (hypotonic solution)
vacuole
holds water
vesicles
small membrane sacs. transfer molecules in and out of cell. form by the cell membrane or some organelles inside
endocytosis
process that brings materials into the cell
exocytosis
process that brings materials out of the cell
phagocytosis
way to obtain FOOD by extending cytoplasm
pinocytosis
way to bring in LIQUIDS
nucleus
control center of cell. sends messages, surrounded by a double membrane
nucleolus
rich in RNA, ribosomes are produced.
chromatin
consists of DNA bound to a protein, when cell prepares to divide, fibers coil up as separate structures called chromosomes.
ribosomes
make proteins (on nucleus). made up of 2 subunits. types: bound (on ER, nucleus) and suspended (in cytoplasm)
ER
main manufacturing and transportation facilities in the cell, maze of membranes. types: rough and smooth
rough ER
close to nucleus. protein synthesis, continuous w/ nuclear membrane. has ribosomes on it. where lipid components of cell membrane are assembled. form vesicles where large molecules are transported to other cell parts
smooth ER
no ribosomes. continuous with rER, contains enzymes that make membrane lipids (phospholipids) and detox. of drugs. in liver cells, steroids, ovaries and testes
golgi apparatus
flattens sac. proteins reduced in the rER move to GA thru vesicles. modifies, sorts and packages proteins from ER for storage in cell or secretion outside cell
lysosomes
contains digestive enzymes that can break down macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. recycle cellular material and destroy non-functional organelles
peroximes
rich in hydrogen peroxide. in liver help detoxify alcohol and other harmful components.
plastids
special organelles in plant cells. chloropasts, chromosplasts, leukoplasts
chloroplast
where photosynthesis takes place. green pigment- chlorophyll
chromoplast
enriched pigments (fruit and flower colors)
leukoplasts
non-pigmented. in roots. stores starch, lipids, and proteins
mitochondria
site for cellular respiration
cytoskeleton
cytoplasm. made of microtubles, microfillaments, intermediate filaments
cilia
short, many, in protists, hair like, in lungs.
flagella
long, few, whip like, sperm
centrioles
in animal cells. pairs. responsible for cell division
cell wall
supports and protects cell