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cell theory

1. all organisms are made of 1 or more cell
2. cells are the fundamental function and structural unit of life
3. all cells come from pre-existing cells

robert hooke

first to use a microscope, named what he saw "cells" because they were like compartments

TEM (transmission electron microscope)

intermal structures (organelles)

SEM (scanning electron microscope)

surface of cell (outside)


photo of view through microscope

plant cll

cell wall, chloroplasts (photosynthesis( and central vacuole

animal cell

flagellum, centriole, and lysosome


bacteria. no nucleus, dna throughout. reproduces asexually



cell (plasma) membrane

selectively permeable membrane. thin layer that determines what goes in and out. phospholipid bi-layer.

passive transport

no energy is expended. high - low.


net movement of particles from a high to low concentration side

facilitated diffusion

uses transport proteins because some are too big to pass through the membrane

active transport

cells expend energy to move molecules. low - high. proteins are involved. Na-K pump. uses ATP


passive transport of WATER across a selectively permeable membrane

hypertonic solutions

high concentration of solute. low amount of water.

hypotonic solutions

low concentration of solute. high amount of water.

isotonic solutions

equal solute and water amounts


hypotonic solutions, water pops animal cell


cell membrane in plant cell shrivels away from cell wall from lack of water.


normal state for plant cell (hypotonic solution)


holds water


small membrane sacs. transfer molecules in and out of cell. form by the cell membrane or some organelles inside


process that brings materials into the cell


process that brings materials out of the cell


way to obtain FOOD by extending cytoplasm


way to bring in LIQUIDS


control center of cell. sends messages, surrounded by a double membrane


rich in RNA, ribosomes are produced.


consists of DNA bound to a protein, when cell prepares to divide, fibers coil up as separate structures called chromosomes.


make proteins (on nucleus). made up of 2 subunits. types: bound (on ER, nucleus) and suspended (in cytoplasm)


main manufacturing and transportation facilities in the cell, maze of membranes. types: rough and smooth

rough ER

close to nucleus. protein synthesis, continuous w/ nuclear membrane. has ribosomes on it. where lipid components of cell membrane are assembled. form vesicles where large molecules are transported to other cell parts

smooth ER

no ribosomes. continuous with rER, contains enzymes that make membrane lipids (phospholipids) and detox. of drugs. in liver cells, steroids, ovaries and testes

golgi apparatus

flattens sac. proteins reduced in the rER move to GA thru vesicles. modifies, sorts and packages proteins from ER for storage in cell or secretion outside cell


contains digestive enzymes that can break down macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. recycle cellular material and destroy non-functional organelles


rich in hydrogen peroxide. in liver help detoxify alcohol and other harmful components.


special organelles in plant cells. chloropasts, chromosplasts, leukoplasts


where photosynthesis takes place. green pigment- chlorophyll


enriched pigments (fruit and flower colors)


non-pigmented. in roots. stores starch, lipids, and proteins


site for cellular respiration


cytoplasm. made of microtubles, microfillaments, intermediate filaments


short, many, in protists, hair like, in lungs.


long, few, whip like, sperm


in animal cells. pairs. responsible for cell division

cell wall

supports and protects cell

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