1. all organisms are made of 1 or more cell 2. cells are the fundamental function and structural unit of life 3. all cells come from pre-existing cells
first to use a microscope, named what he saw "cells" because they were like compartments
TEM (transmission electron microscope)
intermal structures (organelles)
SEM (scanning electron microscope)
surface of cell (outside)
photo of view through microscope
cell wall, chloroplasts (photosynthesis( and central vacuole
flagellum, centriole, and lysosome
bacteria. no nucleus, dna throughout. reproduces asexually
cell (plasma) membrane
selectively permeable membrane. thin layer that determines what goes in and out. phospholipid bi-layer.
no energy is expended. high - low.
net movement of particles from a high to low concentration side
uses transport proteins because some are too big to pass through the membrane
cells expend energy to move molecules. low - high. proteins are involved. Na-K pump. uses ATP
passive transport of WATER across a selectively permeable membrane
high concentration of solute. low amount of water.
low concentration of solute. high amount of water.
equal solute and water amounts
hypotonic solutions, water pops animal cell
cell membrane in plant cell shrivels away from cell wall from lack of water.
normal state for plant cell (hypotonic solution)
small membrane sacs. transfer molecules in and out of cell. form by the cell membrane or some organelles inside
process that brings materials into the cell
process that brings materials out of the cell
way to obtain FOOD by extending cytoplasm
way to bring in LIQUIDS
control center of cell. sends messages, surrounded by a double membrane
rich in RNA, ribosomes are produced.
consists of DNA bound to a protein, when cell prepares to divide, fibers coil up as separate structures called chromosomes.
make proteins (on nucleus). made up of 2 subunits. types: bound (on ER, nucleus) and suspended (in cytoplasm)
main manufacturing and transportation facilities in the cell, maze of membranes. types: rough and smooth
close to nucleus. protein synthesis, continuous w/ nuclear membrane. has ribosomes on it. where lipid components of cell membrane are assembled. form vesicles where large molecules are transported to other cell parts
no ribosomes. continuous with rER, contains enzymes that make membrane lipids (phospholipids) and detox. of drugs. in liver cells, steroids, ovaries and testes
flattens sac. proteins reduced in the rER move to GA thru vesicles. modifies, sorts and packages proteins from ER for storage in cell or secretion outside cell
contains digestive enzymes that can break down macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides. recycle cellular material and destroy non-functional organelles
rich in hydrogen peroxide. in liver help detoxify alcohol and other harmful components.
special organelles in plant cells. chloropasts, chromosplasts, leukoplasts
where photosynthesis takes place. green pigment- chlorophyll
enriched pigments (fruit and flower colors)
non-pigmented. in roots. stores starch, lipids, and proteins
site for cellular respiration
cytoplasm. made of microtubles, microfillaments, intermediate filaments
short, many, in protists, hair like, in lungs.
long, few, whip like, sperm
in animal cells. pairs. responsible for cell division