Discuss four key realities confronting the manager of the twenty-first century. How do these features differ from the past?
1. The only certainty is change. Challenging goals motivate people to strive for improvement and to overcome obstacles and resistance to change
a. Differs from the past-
2. Speed, teamwork, and flexibility are the orders of the day, from both strategic and operational standpoints
a. Differs from the past-
3. Managers at all levels need to stay close to the customer. Product/service quality is the driving force in the battle to stay competitive
a. Differs from the past-
4. Without continuous improvement and lifelong learning, there can be no true economic progress for individuals and organizations alike.
a. Differs from the past-
The objective in a classroom setting is for students to learn valuable information to apply to real-life situations. The Dean of a University decides to increase the number of students in each class from 25 to 100. In terms of effectiveness and efficiency, what affect will this change have (ie. Will it be more or less effective? More or less efficient?). Explain your answer.
It will be more efficient because the job will get done and will cost less money.
It will be less effective because there will be less one on one between the teacher and the students and the students will have a harder time taking in the information.
What is the driving force for the entire management process? Describe the four stages in the evolution of quality that were discussed in class and in the text.
a. Fix-it-in -inspection at end of process
b. Inspect-it-in-inspection at periodic stages
c. Build-it-in -everyone responsible for quality
d. Design-it-in -design or blueprint stages
5. Describe the difference between managerial functions and managerial skills and list and describe the eight managerial functions listed in the text.
Functions- are general administrative duties that need to be carried out in virtually all productive organizations; 8 functions: planning- primary management function, decision making , organizing- careful organizing helps ensure the efficient use of human resources, staffing, communicating, motivating, leading, and controlling.
Skills- specific observable behaviors that effective managers exhibit
6. How do entrepreneurs differ from administrators? Of the six traits used to describe Entrepreneurs on table 1.3, which three do you consider to be the most important and why?
Entrepreneurs focus of the future and what they can do to make things bigger and better. They like to take risks and like to achieve.
Most important- High risk-taking behavior because what they do, usually hasn't been done before. Focus on the future because they don't know what will happen usually so if they focus on what they want, it will happen. Experience in the innovative area because entrepreneurs
Describe the Universal approach to management. List and describe the two fundamental assumptions supporting this approach.
The administration of all organizations, public or private or large or small, requires the same rational process.
a. Purpose may vary, but the core management process remains the same.
b. Process can be reduced to a set of separate functions & related principles
A. Joseph M. Juran
B. Philip B. Crosby
C. Kaoro Ishikawa
D.W. Edwards Deming
E. Armand V. Feigenbaum
B zero defects
C internal and external customers
A Pareto analysis
E continuous improvement
D total quality control
3 Which approach to management is Fredrick W. Taylor most closely associated with? Define "Scientific Management" and list and describe the four areas of scientific management Taylor incorporated into industry.
It is closely associated with Operational approach. Scientific Management means developing performance standards on the basis of systematic observation and experimentation.
Standardization- Taylor collected extensive data on the optimum cutting-tool speeds and the rates at which stock should be fed into the machines for each jobs.
Time and Task Study- certain tools for certain tasks
Systematic Selection and Training- Using the biggest men for the heavy duty jobs and teaching them the right technique for the job
Pay Incentives- If you are producing at a low rate then you get a low rate pay, once you reach a high rate you get a high rate pay
What differentiates the Behavioral Approach to management from the Universal and Operational approaches? List and briefly describe the three factors that contributed to the rise of the human relations movement? What was the historical significance of each?
Behavioral Approach- People deserve to be the central focus of organized activity. Successful management depends on a manager's ability to understand and work with people.
Universal and Operational- More broad,
6 Define the Contingency approach to management. List and describe three characteristics of the contingency approach.
Research effort to determine which managerial practices and techniques are appropriate in specific situations
An Open-System Perspective- they are not satisfied with focusing on just the internal workings of organizations; they see the need to understand how organizational subsystems combine to interact with outside social, cultural, political, and economic systems.
A Practical Research Orientation- research is that which ultimately leads to more effective on the job management. Attempt to translate their findings into tools and situational refinements for more effective management
A multivariate Approach- considers many different variables in approaching the task at hand; a technique that used to determine how a number of variables interact to cause a particular outcome.
There is a saying that "those who do not study history are condemned to repeat it." Which of the various approaches to management will you use when you become managers? Is there one universally accepted approach to management that works in all situations?
I would more than likely use the Operational approach because I would use what I learn throughout my time to better myself and figure out what works and what does not work. I do not think that there is one that will work in all situations because every situation is different in more than one way.
1) Of the four dimensions of change discussed in Chapter 3 (Social, Political-Legal, Economic, and Technological), which one do you believe has the greatest impact or influence on today's managers? Explain your reasoning in detail.
I think that Social has the greatest impact because it combines just about all of the other dimensions. Society is always changing even though everybody wants stability, it isn't going to come anytime soon. If managers are not okay with the changing of society and how things are, the manager will fail miserably unlike somebody who is not technology savvy because they can be eventually taught how to use technology, it is harder to learn how to accept change.
2) Define the word Demographics and describe four ways that the new American workforce is changing. What are some common myths about older workers?
Demographics are statistical profiles of population characteristics. The work force is changing because it is getting larger, it is becoming increasingly female, it is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse, and it is becoming older. Some common myths about older works are that older workers are less productive, they are more prone to absences because of their age, and they have more accidents
3) List and describe the two key pressure points that require managers to have a large stake in the political-legal environment. What is Issues Management? List and describe the three general political responses available to management.
Two key pressure points for managers in this area are the politicization of management and increased personal legal accountability. They mean that the company and manager are responsible for what they publish or put on the market. It has to be politically correct not so much as what they believe. Issues management is the ongoing organizational process of identifying, evaluating, and responding to relevant and important social and political issues. There are three ways that you can respond. Reactive- Defend status quo and/or actively fight government intervention.
Neutral- Watch and wait
Proactive- Improve performance to avoid political attacks and government intervention.
4) In your own words, describe how the Economic environment affects managers. Why is understanding business cycles important?
Economic environment affects managers because economics describes how money is distributed and as a manager, they need to know where they need to focus on to earn that money. Understanding the business cycles is important because it is the up and down movement of an economy's ability to generate wealth. The structure is predictable however the timing is not. So it is important to know what is coming next so that you know how to plan for the future.
5) Why is the global economy a personal matter? What is happening to quality standards and wage standards as a result of globalization?
Global economy is a personal matter because it affects where we work, how much we get paid, what we buy, and how much things cost. Higher quality and lower wages.
6) Why does it take more than a good idea to be innovative? Define the Innovation Process. List and describe the three stages included in the Innovation Process.
It takes more than just a good idea because it also has to be practical and people have to actually want it. The innovation process is the systematic development and practical application of a new idea. The three steps are:
Conceptualization Step- when the idea occurs to someone
Product Technology- actually creating the product that will work as intended
Production Technology- developing a production process
7) Define an Intrapreneur. What difference do you see between Intrapreneurs and Entrepreneurs.
An intrapreneur is an employee who takes personal responsibility for push an innovative idea through a large organization. An entrepreneur is someone who started their own business. An Intrapreneur is someone who came up with a new idea in a business.
1. List and describe the six stages of the internationalization process.
Step 1: Licensing- for companies in foreign countries to be able to produce a product for a fee
Step 2: Exporting- produced in one country, sold to customers in another country
Step 3: Local Warehousing and selling-
Step 4- Local Assembly and packaging
Step 5- Joint Ventures-
Step 6- Direct foreign investments- buying a business in another country
2. TEMA is responsible for Toyota's engineering design, development, R&D, and manufacturing activities in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. TEMA operates 13 parts and vehicle manufacturing plants across North America where components are brought in from all over the world, assembled, and shipped to dealerships. Which stage of the internationalization process is Toyota displaying in this example?
3. Discuss the difference between a global company and a transnational company.
The difference between these two types of international ventures is the difference between actual and theoretical. Transnational companies are evolving and represent a futuristic concept. Global companies do business in many countries simultaneously. Global companies are multinational venture centrally managed from a specific country. Transnational companies are global network of productive units with a decentralized authority structure and no distinct national identity.
Describe the differences between ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric attitudes. You are put in charge of the overseas operations for a business of your choice. What managerial attitude toward international operations do you think will be the most effective and efficient? Why?
Ethnocentric attitudes view that the home country's personnel and ways of doing things are best
Polycentric Attitudes views that local managers in host countries know best how to run their own operations
Geocentric Attitudes are world oriented view that draws on the best talent form around the globe.
The most effective and efficient I believe is Polycentric because if the person lives there, then they would know how to effectively run the business in the different societies because every place is different.
What challenges face managers from a low-context culture in working with and negotiating with those from high-context cultures? List the main differences between the two.
High context cultures use body language and low context cultures use mostly words to communicate
6. What two leadership styles of the GLOBE project have the greatest cross-cultural applicability? How do those styles compare to the way we have described, in class, how management should be done in the 21st century?
Charismatic/value based and team oriented leadership styles
7. What are the four leading reasons why American employees return home early from foreign assignments? What needs to be done to improve this situation?
Not performing job effectively, received other, more rewarding offers from other companies, Expatriate or family not adjusting to the culture, and missing contact with friends and family at home.
Cross culture training can help improve the situation.