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133 terms

AP Biology Chapters 40 and 41

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anatomy
the study of the structure of an organism
physiology
the study of the functions an organism performs
tissues
groups of cells with a common structure and function
outside of the body, lining organs and cavities within the body
where is epithelial tissue found?
epithelial tissue
sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities
basement membrane
the floor of an epithelial membrane on which the basal cells rest
simple epithelium
epithelium with a single layer of cells
stratified epithelium
epithelium with multiple tiers of cells
cuboidal
shaped like dice
columnar
shaped like bricks on end
squamous
flat like floor tiles
glandular epithelia
epithelia that absorb or secrete chemical solutions
mucous membrane
smooth moist epithelium that lines the digestive tract and air tubes leading to the lungs
to bind and support other tissues
what's the function of connective tissue?
connective tissue
sparse cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
collagenous fibers
tough fibers of the extra cellular matrix. they are made of collagen that are nonelastic and don't tear easily when pulled lengthwise
elastic fibers
long threads made of the protein elastin. they provide a rubbery quality to the extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers
reticular fibers
very thin and branched fibers made of collagen. they form a tightly woven fabric that is continuous with the collagenous fibers of the extracellular matrix
loose connective tissue
The most widespread connective tissue in the vertebrate body. It binds epithelia to underlying tissues and functions as packing material, holding organs in place.
fibroblast
A type of cell in loose connective tissue that secretes the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers.
macrophage
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis.
adipose tissue
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
fibrous connective tissue
A dense tissue with large numbers of collagenous fibers organized into parallel bundles. This is the dominant tissue in tendons and ligaments.
tendon
a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
ligament
strong connective tissue that holds bones together in movable joints
cartilage
a type of flexible connective tissue with an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in chondrin
chondrocyte
cartilage cell
bone
A type of connective tissue, consisting of living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts.
osteoblast
A bone-forming cell that deposits a matrix of collagen.
osteon
the repeating organizational unit forming the microscopic stucture of hard mammalian bone
blood
a type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which blood cells are suspended
nervous tissue
tissue composed of neurons and supportive cells
neuron
A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its cell membrane.
muscle tissue
Tissue consisting of long muscle cells that are capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve impulses.
skeletal muscle
Striated muscle generally responsible for the voluntary movements of the body.
striated muscle
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton
cardiac muscle
A type of muscle that forms the contractile wall of the heart. Its cells are joined by intercalated disks that relay each heartbeat.
smooth muscle
A type of muscle lacking the striations of skeletal and cardiac muscle because of the uniform distribution of myosin filaments in the cell.
organ
a specialized center of body function composed of of several different types of tissue
mesentery
A membrane that suspends many of the organs of vertebrates inside fluid-filled body cavities.
thoracic cavity
The body cavity in mammals that houses the lungs and heart. It is surrounded in part by ribs and separated from the lower abdominal cavity by the diaphragm.
abdominal cavity
The body cavity in mammals that primarily houses parts of the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems. It is separated from the more cranial thoracic cavity by the diaphragm.
organ system
group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
digestive system
Food processing (ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination)
circulatory system
internal distribution of materials
respiratory system
gas exchange (uptake of oxygen; disposal of carbon dioxide)
immune and lymphatic system
body defense (fighting infections and cancer)
excretory system
disposal of metabolic wastes; regulation of osmotic balance in blood
endocrine system
coordination of body activities (e.g., digestion, metabolism)
reproductive system
reproduction
nervous system
coordination of body activities; detection of stimuli and formulation of responses to them
integumentary system
protection against mechanical injury, infection, drying out
skeletal system
body support, protection of internal organs
muscular system
movement, locomotion
interstitial fluid
the internal environment of vertebrates, consisting of the fluid filling the spaces between cells
homeostasis
the steady-state physiological condition of the body
negative feedback
A primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation.
positive feedback
A physiological control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
metabolism
the totality of an organism's chemical reactions
endothermic
Organisms with bodies that are warmed by heat generated by metabolism. This heat is usually used to maintain a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
ectothermic
Organisms that do not produce enough metabolic heat to have much effect on body temperature.
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the minimum number of kilocalories a resting animal requires to fuel itself for a given time
standard metabolic rate (SMR)
The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, and nonstressed ectotherm at a particular temperature.
undernourishment
a diet that is chronically deficient in calories
overnourishment
a diet that is chronically excessive in calories
essential fatty acid
the certain unsaturated fatty acids that animals can't make
essential amino acid
Amino acids that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food. Eight of these are essential in the human adult.
vitamin
an organic molecule required in the diet in very small amounts; they serve mainly as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes
mineral
in nutrition, a chemical element other than hydrogen, oxygen, or nitrogen that an organism requires for proper body functioning
suspension-feeder
An aquatic animal, such as a sponge, clam, or baleen whale, that feeds by sifting small food particles from the water.
substrate-feeder
An organism that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food
deposit-feeder
a heterotroph, such as an earthworm, that eats its way through detritus, salvaging bits and pieces of decaying organic matter
fluid-feeders
an animal that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organisms
bulk-feeders
animals that eat relatively large pieces of food
ingestion
A heterotrophic mode of nutrition in which other organisms or detritus are eaten whole or in pieces. step one of digestion
digestion
process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb; step two of digestion
absorption
the uptake of small nutrient molecules by an organism's own body; the third main stage of food processing, following digestion
elimination
the passing of undigested materials out of the digestive compartment; step four of digestion
intracellular digestion
The joining of food vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell.
extracellular digestion
The breakdown of food outside cells
complete digestive tract
A digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called alimentary canal. An incomplete digestive tract has only one opening.
alimentary canal
A digestive tract consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus
peristalsis
rhythmic waves of contractions of smooth muscle that push food along the digestive tract
sphincter
A ringlike valve consisting of modified muscles in a muscular tube, such as a digestive tract; closes off the tube like a drawstring.
salivary glands
Exocrine glands associated with the oral cavity; the secretions of salivary glands contain substances to lubricate foods, adhere together chewed pieces into a bolus, and begin the process of chemical digestion
pancreas
A gland with dual functions: The nonendocrine portion secretes digestive enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the endocrine portion secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
liver
the largest organ in the vertebrate body; it performs diverse functions such as producing bile, preparing nitrogenous wastes for disposal, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood
gallbladder
an organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine
oral cavity
the mouth
salivary amylase
A salivary gland enzyme that hydrolyzes starch
bolus
a lubricated ball of chewed food
pharynx
An area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross; in flatworms, the muscular tube that protrudes from the ventral side of the worm and ends in the mouth.
epiglottis
a cartiliginous flap that blocks the top of the windpipe, the glottis, during swallowing, which prevents the entry of fluid or food into the respiratory system
esophagus
a channel that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach
an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal
gastric juice
the collection of fluids secreted by the epithelium lining the stomach
pepsin
An enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins
pepsinogen
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
acid chyme
a mixture of recently swallowed food and gastric juice
pyloric sphincter
In the vertebrate digestive tract, a muscular ring that regulates the passage of food out of the stomach and into the small intestine
small intestine
the longest section of the alimentary canal; it's the principle site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients
duodenum
The first section of the small intestine, where chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder as well as from gland cells of the intestinal wall.
bile
A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver but stored in the gallbladder and that enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats
chymotrypsin, trypsin
an enzyme found in the duodenum; specific for peptide bonds adjacent to certain amino acids
dipeptidase
an enzyme found attached to the intestinal lining; it plits into small peptides
carboxypeptidase
an enzyme found within the small intestine that splits off one amino acid at a time beginning at the end of the polypeptide that has a free carboxyl group
aminopeptidase
An enzyme found within the small intestine that splits off one amino acid at a time, beginning at the opposite end of the polypeptide containing a free carboxyl group.
nuclease
A team of enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
emulsification
the process that keeps tiny fat droplets from coalescing
lipase
an enzyme that hydrolyzes fat molecules in the intestinal lumen
microvilli
fine, finger-like projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increases its surface area
villi
fingerlike projections of the inner surface of the small intestine
lacteal
A tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons
chylomicron
small intracellular globules composed of fats that are mixed with the cholesterol and coated with special proteins
hepatic portal vessel
A large circulatory channel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content
gastrin
a digestive hormone secreted by the stomach; stimulates the secretion of gastric juice
enterogastrone
a category of hormones secreted by the wall of the duodenum
cholecystokinin (CCK)
a hormone released from the walls of the duodenum in response to the presence of amino acids or fatty acids
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
colon
the tubular portion of the vertebrate alimentary tract between the small intestine and the anus; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces
cecum
a blind outpocket of a hollow organ such as an intestine
appendix
A small, fingerlike extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
digestive system
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, anus
circulatory system
heart, blood vessels, blood
respiratory system
lungs, trachea, other breathing tubes
immune and lymphatic system
bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymph vessels, white blood cells
excretory system
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
endocrine system
pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, other hormone-secreting glands
reproductive system
ovaries, testes, and associated organs
nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
integumentary system
skin and its derivatives (e.g., hair, claws, skin glands)
skeletal system
skeleton (bones, tendons, ligaments, cartilage)
muscular system
skeletal muscles