85 terms

bio 172 exam 1

which of the following is an example of primary active transport
ATP directly transfers energy to the Na+/K+ pump to transport ions across the membrane
if the external solution is hypotonic relative to the inside of cell, what type of water movement will occur?
water will move into the cell via osmosis
which of the following is not part of the endomembrane system
which of the following would not be synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum
cytoskeletal protein
the movement of water into or out of a cell is an example of
which of the following would be considered an integral membrane protein?
a protein with its N-terminus in the cytoplasm and its C-Terminus in the extracellular space
all of the following are properties of prokaryote cells except
internal membrane compartments
at room temperature, how does cholesterol affect the plasma membrane?
it reduces the mobility of phospholipids
movement of cellular material form the endoplasmic reticulum to the outside of the cell is an example of
which statement about diffusion is false?
all types of molecules are able to diffuse across the plasma membrane
why does active transport require ATP energy?
to allow the movement of molecules from low to high concentration
which of the following is false regarding cholesterol?
its hydroxyl group interacts with fatty acid tails of a biological membrane
if a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, what will happen
the red blood cell will shrink
the process of diffusion requires
the random movement of molecules
if the external solution is hypertonic relative to the inside of the cell, what type of water movement will occur
water will move out off the cell via osmosis
enzymes present in the lumen of the golgi apparatus are responsible for modifying proteins and lipids. what is the likely origin of these enzymes?
the rough endoplasmic reticulum
the signal recognition particle (srp) is important for proteins synthesized
on ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
which of the following would be found in the cells of a blade of grass but not in the cells of an insect on that grass?
why is the receptor mediated endocytosis an appropriate term?
it starts when extracellular molecules bind to receptors
what does a motor protein do?
converts chemical energy in ATP into mechanical energy in the form of movement
which of the following statements is not is not true about the similarities in the synthesis of triglycerides and the synthesis of proteins
the final product for both is one long chain connected monomeric building blocks
which of the following correctly describes secondary active transport of protons and sugar across a membrane into a cell
protons move down their concentration gradient while sugar moves against its concentration gradient
which eukaryote organelle is responsible for degrading damaged or unneeded macromolecules
the lysosome
which of the following makes a biological membrane more fluid and flexible
a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids
which of the following is false regarding the Na+/K+ ATPase
it causes Na+ ion concentration to be high inside the cell
which of the following does not contain DNA
long, saturated fatty acid tails (blank) mobility and (blank) membrane fluidity
reduce; decrease
contain any two sugars
which of the following pairs incorrectly matches the structure to its funtion
golgi apparatus; digestion and recycling
which of the following is true regarding osmosis
water moves from a low solute concentration to a high solute concentration
which eukaryote organelle is responsible for protein sorting and modification
the golgi apparatus
which of the following is not true of proteins that get secreted from the cell
they are transported from the golgi to the rough endplasmic reticulum
occasionally a phospholipid will flip from one side of the membrane to the membrane to another. why is this event rare?
it is energetically unfavorable for the polar head group to traverse the hydrophobic interior of the membrane
which of the following moves molecules across the membrane against a concentration gradient?
active transport
which of the following allows for cell-cell recognition in eukaryotes
which of the following can easily cross an artificial liposome
a polar amino acid
which of the following is not a function of the microtubles
cytoplasmic streaming
lipid bilayers spontaneously form to orient the (blank) tails (blank).
hydrophobic; inside
which of the following is not a monosaccharide
which of the following is not a characteristic of DNA?
the bases are found on the exterior portions of the DNA molecule
the covalent linkage between nucleotides is referred to as a (blank) bond.
cellulose is
a material found in plant cell walls
which of the following does not differ among monosaccharides
the position of the carbonyl group
true or false: in the sequence AGGCCT, an available phosphate group would be found at the 5' end of the nucleotide labeled "T"
which one of the following represents a standard Waston-Crick base pair interaction
the strands of a double helix of DNA are
antiparallel, complementary, held together via hydrogen bonds, and wound around each other with 10 base pairs per turn
what type of studies was instrumental for watson and crick's proposal that DNA forms a double helix?
X-ray diffraction studies
phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme that is negatively charged that is negatively regulated by ATP and positively regulated by ATP. to activate phosphofructokinase, you would expect ADP to bind to the (blank) and (blank) the enzyme
regulatory site; activate
a 1,4 glycosidic linkage would refer to which one of the following
the covalent bond between carbon 1 of the monosaccharide and carbon 4 of a second monosaccharide
what is linked to the 3' carbon of a deoxyribonucleotide
a hydroxyl (OH) group
if a DNA molecule had 35% thymine, how much guanine would it contain?
in the DNA of certain bacterial cells, 16% of the necleotides are adenine. what are the rest
16% thymidine, 34% guanine, 34% cytosine
which of the following is not a difference between RNA and DNA
RNA bases are linked via phosphodiester linkage while DNA are linked via an ester linkage
the chemical formula for a 6 carbon molecule is C6H12O6. what type of molecule is this
which of the following is true regarding the molecular structure of DNA?
the helix has a uniform diameter because purines pair with pryrimidines
what 5 carbon sugar do you need for a nucleotide?
either deoxyribose or ribose
you are a research assistant and are interested in developing a new antibiotic which targets a newly bacterial species. which of the following carbohydrates would be most affected by your antibiotic
in a small stretch of a double stranded DNA molecule, there are a total of 8 nucleotide base pairs. if 3 of the base pairs are Guanine and 5 of the bases were adenines, how many hydrogen bonds would be holding the molecule together this molecule together?
which of the following organic molecules is commonly used for energy storage
lipids and carbohydrate
Where are lysosomal enzymes synthesized?
on the rough endoplasmic reticulum
The active maintenance of a constant environment is referred to as
Which of the following is part of the endomembrane system of a eukaryotic cell?
Golgi apparatus
nuclear envelope
Which eukaryotic organelle is associated with the breakdown of macromolecules?
Which of the following accurately describes the path traveled by a new cell surface protein as it is
synthesized and transported to the plasma membrane?
rough ER → Golgi → transport vesicle → plasma membrane
Which of the following is not part of the endomembrane system?
Where is the SRP receptor located in a cell?
in the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Nutritionally, saturated fatty acids are considered to be worse for your health than unsaturated fatty acids. What is the difference between them?
C. Saturated fatty acids have more hydrogen atoms than unsaturated fatty acids.
Extremophiles are organisms that live in harsh environments previously thought unable to sustain life. Which statement about extremophiles is true?
Halophiles adapt to life in salty environments by maintaining high solute concentrations in their cytosol.
If the pH of a solution were 9.0, in what state would an acidic amino acid be?
It would have a negative charge.
Phospholipid bilayer membranes are most permeable to which of the following molecules?
Which of the following statements about competitive inhibitors is false?
A competitive inhibitor decreases the Vmax of a reaction.
Which statement about the tree of life is true?
The branches indicate that species arose from modifications from a common ancestor
Which of the following organelles harnesses energy in a eukaryotic cell?
What is the main characteristic that determines the ability of a protein to carry out its function?
The three-dimensional shape of the protein.
What allows individual water molecules to interact with each other?
Hydrogen bonds
Which of the following is not a difference between RNA and DNA?
RNA bases are linked via a phosphodiester linkage while DNA bases are linked via an ester linkage.
Which types of amino acids would be most soluble in water?
Those having polar or charged side chains
What is the energy of motion called?
Kinetic energy
What distinguishes the twenty-one different amino acids found in proteins?
The composition of their side chains.
Which of the following best summarizes the relationship between condensation reactions and hydrolysis reactions?
condensation assembles polymers and hydrolysis breaks down polymers
Allosteric activators
bind away from the active site, causing a conformational change in the active site
If you were using a fluorescent dye specific for RNA synthesis enzymes, what listed part of the cell would have the most fluorescence?
The nucleus
What type of interaction is responsible for the formation of secondary structure of proteins?
Hydrogen bonds between portions of the polypeptide backbone
Which statement is true about a protein's quaternary structure?
More than one polypeptide subunit is required.
Molecular zip codes direct molecules to particular destinations in the cell. How are these signals read?
They bind to receptor proteins