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MPO -Selection and Placement
Terms in this set (71)
Why is selecting the right employees crucial?
Hiring the wrong people COSTS
-$20,000 for an intermediate position
-$100,000 for a senior management position
According to Glassdoor, the 3 most common interview questions are:
-What's your favorite movie?
-What's your favorite website?
-What makes you uncomfortable?
What is selection?
The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings
What is the Selection Process?
-There is no standard selection process
-Usually the steps in the selection process and the sequence of those steps vary with:
The type of the job
The hierarchical level of the job
-Important Process: Job Analysis- defining the tasks and the required KSAs
What is the goal of Employee Selection?
-To minimize the error in choosing employees and to improve the company's competitive position
-To maximize the "hits": maximize the true positives and the true negatives, minimize the false negatives and the false positives
What are the two general Employee Selection models?
The organization focuses on identifying through the job analysis the competencies (KSAs -knowledge, skills, and abilities) that are deemed necessary for the specific job and, thus, selecting individuals who match those requirements
-The degree to which individuals are matched to the culture and values of the organization
-This doesn't mean that the selected individuals do not meet the requirements for fulfilling the role tasks
Selection Method Standards:
What is Reliability?
-The degree to which a measure of physical or cognitive abilities or traits is FREE FROM RANDOM ERROR
-The degree to which the selection method YIELDS COMPARABLE RESULTS OVER TIME AND ALTERNATIVE MEASURES
-Refers to: Consistency, Dependability, and Stability
Correlation Coefficient in Reliability
-A measure of reliability
-Measures the degree to which two sets of numbers are related: a perfect positive relationship equals +1.0, a perfect negative relationship equals -1.0
-Exploring how scores using the same measure at one time relate to the scores on the same measure at another time
-Reliability as stability
-Exploring how scores obtained by one rater relate to the scores obtained by another rater using the same measure
-Reliability as consistency
Why is Reliability important in selection?
Ensures that the measures is free of random error
Reliability is a ________ but ________ characteristic of a good measuring device
What is Validity?
The extent to which a performance measures assesses ALL AND ONLY ALL THE RELEVANT ASPECTS OF JOB PERFORMANCE
Important step for having valid selection devices:
Having a detailed job analysis: identifies all the job-relevant aspects that should be somehow measured by the selection device
A measure cannot be valid if it is not _______
-Assessing the extent to which a selection tool predicts or significantly correlates with actual performance
-A method of establishing validity of a personnel selection method by showing a substantial correlation between test scores and job-performance
What are the two types of Criterion-Related Validation?
-Seeks to establish an empirical relationship between applicants' scores on a selection device and their eventual job performance
-Taking the applicants' scores on the selection device and then obtaining the performance scores for those who were actually hired
-Correlates pre-employment test scores (applicants) and eventual job performance (applicants who got hired)
-The test is administered to all the current employees and the scores are compared with existing measures of their job performance
-Correlates scores on the device with current job performance using current employees
Predictive Validation is _________ to concurrent
Qualities of Predictive Validation job applicants and employees
-Job applicants are typically motivated to perform well on the tests that are current employees
-Current employees have learned many things on the job that applicants do not know
-Current employees tend to be homogeneous -lack of variability in scores
Test-Validation strategy performed by demonstrating that the items, questions, or problems posed by a test are a representative sample of the kinds of situations or problems that occur on the job.
-Best for small samples
-Achieved primarily through expert judgment
What is Generalizability?
The degree of which the validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts
-Different situations (jobs and organizations)
-Different samples of people
-Different time periods
What is Utility?
The degree of which the information provided by selection methods enhance the effectiveness of selecting personnel
Utility is impacted by what?
-The reliability, validity, and generalizability of the selection device
-Other factors such as:
The Selection Ratio
The Selection Ratio
The number of people selected vs the total number of applicants; lower selection ratio =higher utilit
What is Legality?
The degree to which the selection method used conforms to existing laws
Acts that are particularly impactful in Selection:
-Civil Rights Act of 1991 and 1994
-Age Discrimination Act of 1967
-Americans with Disabilities Act
What was the main goal of the Civil Rights Acts?
Protect individuals from discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, and national origin
Civil Rights Act of 1991
-Establishes employers' explicit obligation to establish neutral -appearing selection methods
-Allows a jury to decide punitive damages
-Explicitly prohibits granting preferential treatment to minority groups (quotas are not allowed)
Age Discrimination Act of 1967
-Covers individuals over the age of 40
-No protection for younger individuals
-Outlaws almost all "mandatory retirement" programs
Americans with Disabilities Act
-Protects individuals with physical or mental disabilities (or with a history of such disabilities)
-Reasonable accommodations are required by the organization to allow the disables to perform essential functions on the job. An employer does not need to make accommodations that cause undue hardship.
-Restrictions on pre-employment inquiries.
Examples of Selection Methods/Devices
-References and Background Checks
-Physical Ability Tests
-Cognitive Ability Tests
A dialogue initiated by one or more agents of the organizations to gather information and evaluate the applicant's qualifications
General Facts about Interviews
-The most common selection device
-Virtually all organizations use them
What are the problems with Interviews?
-Interviewers are influenced by non-job related characteristics of the job candidate (contrast effects)
-Interviewers tend to jump into conclusions
-Often attempt to measure too many KSAs
-Different interviewers pay attention to different things and interpret the same information differently -low interrater agreement -low reliability
-Interviewers often are unaware of the information they weigh into their decisions
Techniques for Better Interview Results (Higher Utility)
-Standardized and structured interviews focused on the desired skills/abilities
-Interviewers should be able to quantitatively rate each interview
-Interviewers should have a structured note-taking system that will aid recall to satisfying ratings
The applicant is confronted with a pre-specified query of questions and issues that are likely to arise at the job
Situational Interviews are ________-________
-The intention is to predict behavior
-Applicants are asked to describe how they would handle specific situations
-The questions should pose a dilemma
-All answers should be recorded (notes)
-Each should be scored
Situational Interview, Motivating Employees
"Suppose you were working with an employee who you knew greatly disliked performing a particular task. You needed to get this task completed, however, and this person was the only one available to do it. What would you do to try to motivate that person?"
Situational Interview, Resolving Conflict
"Imagine that you and a co-worker disagree about the best way to handle an absenteeism problem with another member of your team. How would you resolve that situation?"
Situational Interview, Overcoming Resistance to Change
"Suppose you had an idea for change in work procedures that would enhance quality, but some members of your work group were hesitant to make the change. What would you do in that situation?"
The applicant is confronted with a pre-specified query of questions regarding past work or non-work situations
Behavioral Interviews are _______-_______
-The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior
-Applicants are asked to describe how they have handled specific situations
-All answers should be recorded (notes)
-Each answer should be scored
Behavioral Interview, Motivating Employees
"Think about an instance when you had to motivate an employee to perform a task that he or she disliked but that you needed to have done. How did you handle that situation?"
Behavioral Interview, Resolving Conflict
"What was the biggest difference of opinion you ever had with a co-worker. How did you resolve that situation?"
Behavioral Interview, Overcoming Resistance to Change
"What was the hardest change you ever had to bring about in a past job, and what did you do to get the people around you to change their thoughts or behaviors?"
"A customer comes into the store to pick up a watch he had left for repair. The repair was supposed to have been completed a week ago, but the watch is not repaired yet. The customer is very angry. How would you handle this situation?" This question could be part of a:
"It is often necessary to work together in a group to accomplish a task. Can you tell me about the most recent experience you had working as part of a group?" This question could be part of a:
References and Background Checks
-Allow the verification of information obtained through other sources such as previous employers, etc
-Have not proved successful in predicting employee performance
-All statements should be based on documented verifiable behaviors
Legal and Ethical Issues of References and Background Checks
-Negative information might give rise to reference-giver legal liability (defamation)
-Subject to legal challenge
-Legal consequences when not obtaining references (negligent hiring)
-Viewed as violating one's privacy
Empirically developed questionnaires that reveal information about a person's history that may have shaped his/her behavior
-Based on the assumption that past behavior predicts future behavior. Ex: At what age did you leave home? (rating independence) What was your favorite sport as a child? (team player)
-One of the oldest methods used
-Useful for predicting motivation and behaviors such as theft, turnover, and performance
-Moderate to high validity
-Allow the collection of information in a standardized manner
-Good source of information about education, past experience, convictions, and references. Information sought should be historical and verifiable.
-Questions should align to EEO requirements. Direct or indirect questions about protected classifications should be avoided.
-Moderate to low validities
Physical Ability Tests
-Relevant for predicting job performance, occupational injuries, and disabilities.
muscular tension, power, endurance, and dexterity.
spatial relations (how some object is located in space in relation to some reference object)
What are the ethical issues with Physical Ability Tests?
-Usually have adverse impact for women and disabled people
-Two important questions to ask before including a physical ability test in the selection process:
Is the physical ability essential to perform the job? & Is it mentioned prominently enough in the job description
Cognitive Ability Tests
-Measures abilities involving thinking, perceptions, memory, reasoning, verbal ability, mathematical ability, and expression of ideas
-Commonly assessed abilities:
Verbal Comprehension, Quantitative Ability, and Reasoning Ability
-The most commonly used cognitive ability test is Wonderlic
A person's capacity to understand and use written and spoken language
Speed and accuracy with which one can solve arithmetic problems
A person's capacity to invent solutions to diverse problems
Cognitive Ability Tests are the most valid predictors of ________
-valid for most jobs
-more valid for medium and high complexity jobs
Ethical Issues with Cognitive Ability Tests
Usually have adverse impact, white male applicants do better
Personality inventories indicate an applicant's predisposition to behave in a particular way
-Categorize individuals by personal characteristics
-Big Five, Emotional Intelligence, adjustment, inquisitiveness
The Big Five is the most ________ personality traits inventory
-Conscientiousness is found to predict systematically performance for most jobs -other traits could be valid for different jobs
Personality tests are ______ valid in jobs which require high technical experience
Attempt to simulate the job in a pre-hiring context to observe how the applicant performs.
This can be:
-On the job (Actually drive a car)
-Off the job (Use a simulator)
-Validity depends on the extent to which the work sample is representative and/or focuses on key components of the job
-A process in which multiple raters evaluate employees' performance on multiple aspects and exercises
-Popular for managerial selection
Honesty and Integrity Tests
Overt v Disguised
-Overt: have a clear purpose. For instance examining the likelihood that an individual will steal. Ex., Have you ever overcharged someone for your own personal gain?
-Disguised: Not allowing the candidate to see the true reason behind the test
-Valid predictors of counterproductive behaviors:
More valid for high complexity jobs
No adverse impact
Uncorrelated with intelligence
Moderate to high validity
Forms of Honesty and Integrity Tests
-Paper-and-pencil honesty testing: attempts to assess the likelihood that employees will steal
-Polygraph/Lie detector: measures changes in breathings, blood pressure, and pulse when a person is being questioned.
^Banned for private companies with the Polygraph Act of 1988. (Except pharmaceutical companies and security guard suppliers)
-Reliable and Valid
-Controversies: Is it an invasion of privacy? Is it an unreasonable search and seizure? Is it a violation of due process?
-If used, they should be administered systematically to all applicants
-Testing is likely to be more defensible with safety hazards associate with failure to perform
-Test results should be reported to applicants, who should have an avenue to appeal
This set is often in folders with...
MPO -Recognizing Employee Contributions with Pay
MPO -Foundations of Employee Motivation
MPO -Performance Management
MPO -Pay Structure Decisions
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